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Environmental Health - Toxic Substances


U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting Charleston South Carolina March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination From Point Sources, Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C

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Shallow-Depth Seismic Refraction Studies Near the Norman, Oklahoma, Landfill

By Michael H. Powers and Wilfred P. Hasbrouck


Seismic refraction surveys were performed near the Norman, Oklahoma, landfill to determine the depth to bedrock between the landfill and the Canadian River. For two lines, one short and one longer, both compressional wave data and shear wave data were acquired. Because the compressional wave velocities are strongly influenced by the variable saturation of sand, clay, and gravel in the unconsolidated sediments, and shear wave velocities are not influenced by these features, the shear wave data lead to much more accurate models of the bedrock interface.

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