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U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TOXIC SUBSTANCES HYDROLOGY PROGRAM--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B Volume 2 of 3




Introduction, page 1

Acknowledgments, page 2



Emerging contaminant issues from an ecological perspective by S.N. Luoma, page 3

SECTION A-The San Francisco Bay-Estuary Toxics Study: Sustained Progress in a Unique Estuarine Laboratory, page 9

Studies relating pesticide concentrations to potential effects on aquatic organisms in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary, California by K.M. Kuivila, page 11

Metal trends and effects in Potamocorbula amurensis in North San Francisco Bay by C.L. Brown and S.N. Luoma, page 17

Pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Francisco Bay during the first flush, December 1995 by B.A. Bergamaschi, K.M. Kuivila, and M.S. Fram, page 23

Evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in the Saginaw River using sediments, caged fish, and SPMDs by K.R. Echols, R.W. Gale, T.R. Schwartz, J.N. Huckins, L.L. Williams, J.C. Meadows, C.E. Orazio, J.D. Petty, and D.E. Tillitt, page 35

Butyltin contamination in sediments and lipid tissues of the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, near Mare Island Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay by W.E. Pereira, F.D. Hostettler, and T.L. Wade, page 41

Forecasting spring discharge in the west: A step towards forecasting stream chemistry by D.H. Peterson, R.E. Smith, Michael Dettinger, D.R. Cayan, S.W. Hager, and L.E. Schemel, page 51

Reduced phosphate loading to South San Francisco Bay, California: Detection of effects in the water column by L.E. Schemel, S.W. Hager, and D.H. Peterson, page 59

A Marine Nowcast System for San Francisco Bay, California by C.A. English, J.W. Gartner, R.E. Smith, and R.T. Cheng, page 65

Herbicide concentrations in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California by K.M. Kuivila, H.D. Barnett, and J.L. Edmunds, page 69

Do herbicides impair phytoplankton primary production in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta? by J.L. Edmunds, K.M. Kuivila, B.E. Cole, and J.E. Cloern, page 81

Degradation rates of six pesticides in water from the Sacramento River, California by Keith Starner, K.M. Kuivila, Bryan Jennings, and G.E. Moon, page 89

The carbon isotopic composition of trihalomethanes formed from chemically distinct dissolved organic carbon isolates from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA by B.A. Bergamaschi, M.S. Fram, Roger Fujii, G.R. Aiken, Carol Kendall, and S.R. Silva, page 99

Understanding the human influence on the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary Ecosystem - The Toxic Substances Hydrology Program and USGS Place-based Studies Program provide complementary approaches and results by J.S. Kuwabara, F.H. Nichols, K.M. Kuivila, and J.S. DiLeo, page 109

Processes affecting the benthic flux of trace metals into the water column of San Francisco Bay by J.S. Kuwabara, B.R. Topping, K.H. Coale, and W.M. Berelson, page 115

Redox gradients in the vicinity of the Santa Barbara Basin: Application of techniques developed within the San Francisco Bay Toxics Study by J.S. Kuwabara, Alexander van Geen, D.C. McCorkle, J.M. Bernhard, Yan Zheng, and B.R. Topping, page 121

Flow-injection-ICP-MS method applied to benthic flux studies of San Francisco Bay by B.R. Topping and J.S. Kuwabara, page 131

Aspects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill--A forensic study and a toxics controversy by F.D. Hostettler, K.A. Kvenvolden, R.J. Rosenbauer, and J.W. Short, page 135

SECTION B-Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems, page 145

A national pilot study of mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems along multiple gradients by D.P. Krabbenhoft, J.G. Wiener, W.G. Brumbaugh, M.L. Olson, J.F. DeWild, and T.J. Sabin, page 147

Methylmercury in aquatic food webs: Consequences and management challenges by J.G. Wiener and D.P. Krabbenhoft, page 161

Mercury contamination: A nationwide threat to our aquatic resources, and a proposed research agenda for the USGS by D.P. Krabbenhoft, and J.G. Wiener, page 171

Mercury contamination from hydraulic placer-gold mining in the Dutch Flat mining district, California by M.P. Hunerlach, J.J. Rytuba, and C.N. Alpers, page 179

Techniques for the collection and species-specific analysis of low levels of mercury in water, sediment, and biota by M.L. Olson and J.F. DeWild, page 191

SECTION C-Occurrence, Distribution, and Fate of Agricultural Chemicals in the Mississippi River Basin, page 201

Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin by D.A. Goolsby, W.A. Battaglin, B.T. Aulenbach, and R.P. Hooper, page 203

Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in midwestern rivers, reservoirs, and ground water, 1998 by W.A. Battaglin, E.T. Furlong, M.R. Burkhardt, and C.J. Peter, page 215

Occurrence of cotton herbicides and insecticides in Playa Lakes of the High Plains of West Texas by E.M. Thurman, K.C. Bastian, and Tony Mollhagen, page 227

Trends in annual herbicide loads from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico by G.M. Clark, D.A. Goolsby, page 237

Finding minimal herbicide concentrations in ground water? Try looking for the degradates by D.W. Kolpin, E.M. Thurman, and S.M. Linhart, page 247

Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, Part I - Rain by M.S. Majewski, W.T. Foreman, and D.A. Goolsby, page 255

Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, Part II - Air by W.T. Foreman, M.S. Majewski, D.A. Goolsby, F.W. Wiebe, and R.H. Coupe, page 263

Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry by E.T. Furlong, M.R. Burkhardt, P.M. Gates, S.L. Werner, and W.A. Battaglin, page 275

Herbicides and herbicide degradates in shallow ground water and the Cedar River near a municipal well field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa by R.A. Boyd, page 289

Occurrence of pesticides in rain and air in urban and agricultural areas of Mississippi, April-September 1995 by R.H. Coupe, M.A. Manning, W.T. Foreman, D.A. Goolsby, and M.S. Majewski, page 301

Changes in herbicide concentrations in midwestern streams in relation to changes in use, 1989-98 by E.A. Scribner, W.A. Battaglin, D.A. Goolsby, and E.M. Thurman, page 313

An ecological risk assessment of the potential for herbicide impacts on primary productivity of the Lower Missouri River by J.F. Fairchild, L.C. Sappington, and D.S. Ruessler, page 323

Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin by G.B. Lawrence, D.A. Goolsby, and W.A. Battaglin, page 331

Isotopic tracing of nitrogen sources and cycling in the Mississippi River Basin by Carol Kendall, W.A. Battaglin, Gilbert Cabana, C.C. Chang, S.R. Silva, S.D. Porter, D.A. Goolsby, D.H. Campbell, R.P. Hooper, and C.J. Schmitt, page 339

Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry by K.A. Hostetler and E.M. Thurman, page 345

Analysis of selected herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water of the United States by E.A. Scribner, E.M. Thurman, and L.R. Zimmerman, page 355

Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices by L.R. Zimmerman, E.M. Thurman, and K.C. Bastian, page 367

SECTION D-Additional Research on the Effects of Contamination on Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems, page 381

Ratios of metolachlor to its metabolites in ground water, tile-drain discharge, and surface water in selected areas of New York State by P.J. Phillips, D.A. Eckhardt, E.M. Thurman, and S.A. Terracciano, page 383

Herbicides and their metabolites in Cayuga Lake and its tributaries, New York by D.A.V. Eckhardt, W.M. Kappel, W.F. Coon, and P.J. Phillips, page 395

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, 1998 and vulnerability of ground water in lakeside communities by O.S. Zapecza and A.L. Baehr, page 405

Halogenated organic compounds in endocrine-disrupted male carp from Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, Nevada by T.J. Leiker, H.E. Bevans, and S.L. Goodbred, page 415

How DOC composition may explain the poor correlation between specific trihalomethane formation potential and specific UV absorbance by M.S. Fram, Roger Fujii, J.L. Weishaar, B.A. Bergamaschi, and G.R. Aiken, page 423

Wastewater analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry by G.K. Brown, S.D. Zaugg, and L.B. Barber, page 431

Biomonitoring of environmental status and trends (BEST) program: Contaminants and related effects in fish from the Mississippi, Columbia, and Rio Grande Basins by C.J. Schmitt, T.M. Bartish, V.S. Blazer, T.S. Gross, D.E. Tillitt, W.L. Bryant, and L.R. DeWeese, page 437

A model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development by D.M. Papoulias, D.B. Noltie, and D.E. Tillitt, page 447

The potential for contaminated ground water to adversely affect chinook salmon under exposure conditions simulating the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, USA by D.F. Woodward, A.M. Farag, A.J. DeLonay, Laverne Cleveland, W.G. Brumbaugh, and E.E. Little, page 455

A radioimmunoassay method to screen for antibiotics in liquid waste at confined livestock operations, with confirmation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry by M.T. Meyer, J.E. Bumgarner, E.M. Thurman, K.A. Hostetler, and J.V. Daughtridge, page 465

Trends in sediment quality in response to urbanization by P.C. Van Metre, and Edward Callender, page 471

Estimating the environmental behavior of inorganic and organometal contaminants: Solubilities, bioaccumulation, and acute aquatic toxicities by J.P. Hickey, page 477

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