Handbook of groundwater remediation using permeable reactive barriers--Applications
to radionuclides, trace metals, and nutrients
The use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove trace metals,
radionuclides, and nutrients from groundwater has lagged behind the use
of this technology to remove organic contaminants, such as chlorinated
hydrocarbons. To assist in the development and application of PRBs to
remove inorganic contaminants, the American Geophysical Union convened
a special session on "Utilizing Permeable Reactive Barriers to Remediate
Groundwater Contaminated by Radionuclides and Other Inorganic Contaminants"
at its annual Fall meeting December 13-14, 1999, in San Francisco, California.
Chapters contained in this volume are updated and expanded versions of
the materials presented during the special session.
The book contains 17 chapters that are organized into 4 sections. Preceding
the first section, Chapter 1 provides an introduction to PRBs and includes
overviews on their historical development, uptake mechanisms, longevity,
Section 1, "Innovations in Design, Construction, and Evaluation
of PRBs," is composed of five chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 present
the design and application of limestone drains in the treatment of acidic
mine drainage from coal and metal mining districts as well as coastal
areas that have been recently drained. A description of the use of a PRB
combined with a newly developed passive extraction system referred to
as a GeoSiphonTM is presented in Chapter 4. The last two chapters in this
section (5 and 6) describe new techniques for the emplacement of PRBs
and include the use of in-situ redox manipulation and deep aquifer remediation
Section 2, "Development of Reactive Materials," is focused
on the development of new and innovative materials for use in permeable
reactive barriers. The new materials described in this section include
an iron oxide/phosphate (Chapter 7) and a MultiBarrier consisting of four
sequential layers designed to treat a mixed contaminant plume (Chapter
Section 3, "Evaluation of Chemical and Biological Processes,"
provides descriptions of some of the removal mechanisms or interactions
that occur in PRBs. Chapter 9 evaluates chemical reactions responsible
for uranium uptake on apatite materials. The next three chapters focus
on zero valent iron (ZVI), currently (2002) the most popular material
used in PRBs. Chapter 10 uses a variety of geochemical and microbiological
tools to evaluate the influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria on PRB performance.
The chemical mechanism(s) responsible for uranium removal in ZVI PRBs
are not completely understood. Chapter 11 presents 3 years of monitoring
data to document the biogeochemical interactions that occur in a ZVI PRB
and presents evidence on how uranium can be removed by abiotic reductive
precipitation. Solid-phase evidence from core samples collected from two
different ZVI PRBs are presented in Chapter 12 and provides evidence for
uranium removal by adsorption to ferric oxides and oxyhyroxides.
Section 4, "Case Studies of Permeable Reactive Barrier Installations,"
presents five case studies of PRB installations in the United States (Utah,
Colorado, North Carolina, and Tennessee) and Canada (British Columbia
and Ontario). The first three chapters in this section focus on the removal
of uranium from contaminated groundwater. Chapter 13 presents design and
performance results from a PRB installed to remove uranium and associated
contaminants from an ore processing facility in Utah. Uranium removal
results from a 3-year field demonstration of three different PRBs are
presented in Chapter 14. Chapter 15 presents the results of a 3-year field
demonstration designed to removed uranium and associated metals from a
mill tailings repository site in southwestern Colorado. Results from a
case study using sodium dithionite for the in-situ reduction of chromate
are presented in Chapter 16. Chapter 17 presents results that utilize
municipal compost to neutralize acidity and remove heavy metals from two
sites in Canada.
Table of Contents
About the Book
- Naftz, David, Morrison, S.J., Fuller, C.C., and Davis, J.A., eds., 2002,
- Handbook of groundwater remediation using permeable reactive barriers--Applications to radionuclides, trace metals, and nutrients: San Diego, Calif., Academic Press, 539 p. (ISBN 0-12-513563-7)