Crude Oil Contamination in the Shallow Subsurface: Bemidji, Minnesota
scientists conducting a subsurface tracer test at the Bemidji Crude Oil Spill Research Site, Minnesota. The scientists use tracer tests to study subsurface contaminant transport processes.
scientist working on geochemical characterization of the contaminant plume at the site. A multidisciplinary team of scientists from the USGS
and other organizations have been studying the natural attenuation of crude oil in the subsurface.
scientist collecting an unsaturated-zone gas sample with a syringe from a vapor sampling well. The sample was used to study the natural attenuation of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone.
scientists conducting a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the south subsurface oil pool. GPR can help delineate the extent of oil in the subsurface.
scientist lowers borehole radar into a borehole near the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The investigative approaches the scientists used at this site were developed as part of the Bemidji Crude Oil Research Site, Bemidji, Minnesota
Soil moisture probes and tensiometers installed in the side of a pit for monitoring a tracer test in the unsaturated zone. Note black oil-contaminated sand on pit walls.
Geochemical zones in the subsurface plume of dissolved constituents at the Bemidji Crude Oil Spill Site, Minnesota
. Each zone has a unique microbial community that's actively degrading the dissolved constituents.
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