Environmental Health - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program
Scientists conducted laboratory experiments on levonorgestrel (a synthetic progestin) and observed differential effects to males (reproductive behavior) and females (masculinization) of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)
University of Maryland and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists examined the exposure effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive development and behavior of male and female eastern mosquitofish. Mosquitofish are viviparous (livebearing) fish that require internal fertilization and sex-specific behavioral displays to properly reproduce. Synthetic progestins, including LNG, are commonly used as components of human contraceptive and hormone replacement pharmaceuticals. Little is known, however, regarding the potential effects to aquatic organisms from exposure to such chemicals.
Scientists collaborated to conduct an 8-day laboratory aqueous exposure experiment. Eastern mosquitofish were exposed to LNG at three concentrations (0, 10, and 100 nanograms per liter, parts-per-trillion). The exposure concentrations were based on LNG concentrations observed in wastewater effluent from the published literature. Although exposure levels based on effluent concentrations results are higher than likely expected in most streams, such levels are still environmentally relevant because it is not uncommon for some streams to be at, or approaching, 100 percent effluent under certain hydrologic conditions. Reproductive development was measured by determining anal fin (needed in males for internal fertilization of the females) length in female and male mosquitofish. The frequency of reproductive behavior was measured in paired exposure groups of males and females.
Scientists determined that LNG exposure affected female and male mosquitofish, but in substantially different ways. The females exposed to LNG exhibited physical changes (that is, masculinization evidenced by enhanced growth of the anal fin). Conversely, the males exposed to LNG exhibited behavioral changes (that is, spent less time performing courtship and reproductive behaviors). Males exposed to the highest LNG concentration developed elongated anal fins. This study documents that LNG exposures in a laboratory setting can affect the physical development and reproductive behavior of mosquitofish and indicates that these alterations could potentially affect wild fish in the environment.
This research is part of long-term investigations of the fate and effects of contaminants, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, by the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program to provide water-resource managers with objective information that assists in the development of effective water management practices.
Frankel, T.E., Meyer, M.T., and Orlando, E.F., 2016, Aqueous exposure to the progestin, levonorgestrel, alters anal fin development and reproductive behavior in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki): General and Comparative Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.01.007 (In Press, Corrected Proof).