Environmental Health - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Research and Development of Laboratory Methods

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This section of the bibliography has 426 publications

This crosscutting topic bibliography is a subcategory of the following bibliography:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z

A

Aga, D.S., 1995, Analytical applications of immunoassays in environmental and agricultural chemistry--study of the fate and transport of herbicides: Lawrence, University of Kansas, Department of Chemistry, Ph.D. thesis, 220 p.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1997, Environmental Immunoassays--Alternative techniques for soil and water analysis, in Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Immunochemical technology for environmental applications: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 657, p. 1-20.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1995, Application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for ultratrace analysis of herbicides in water and soil by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in Kurtz, D.A., Skerritt, J.H., and Stanker, L., eds., Agrochemical Immunoanalysis-93: Arlington, Va., AOAC International, p. 317.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Coupling solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ultratrace determination of herbicides in pristine water: Analytical Chemistry, v. 65, no. 20, p. 2894-2898, doi:10.1021/ac00068a029.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., and Pomes, M.L., 1996, Measurement of concentrations of alachlor and its ethanesulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 385-392.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., and Pomes, M.L., 1994, Determination of alachlor and its sulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: Analytical Chemistry, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1495-1499, doi:10.1021/ac00081a022.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., Yockel, M.E., Zimmerman, L.R., and Williams, T.D., 1996, Identification of a new sulfonic acid metabolite of metolachlor in soil: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 2, p. 592-597, doi:10.1021/es9503600.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., eds., 1997, Immunochemical technology for environmental applications: American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 657, 396 p.

Aiken, G.R., 2003, Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) characterization, in Schuster, P.F., ed., Water and sediment quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, during water year 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-427, p. 23-26.

Aiken, G.R., 1992, Chloride interference in the analysis of dissolved organic carbon by the wet oxidation method: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 26, no. 12, p. 2435-2439 (Scroll down pdf for abstract), doi:10.1021/es00036a015.

Aiken, G.R., Kaplan, L.A., and Weishaar, J., 2002, Assessment of relative accuracy in the determination of organic matter concentrations in aquatic systems: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, v. 4, p. 70-74, doi:10.1039/b107322m.

Aiken, G.R., and Leenheer, J.A., 1993, Isolation and characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter: Chemistry and Ecology, v. 8, p. 135-151, doi:10.1080/02757549308035305.

Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., Thorn, K.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1992, Isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from water using nonionic macroporous resins: Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, no. 4, p. 567-573, doi:10.1016/0146-6380(92)90119-I.

Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., Roth, D.A., Cain, D.J., Ball, J.W., Unruh, D.M., and Deleanis, P.D., 2000, Study design--Field and laboratory methods, in Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., eds., Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, p. 19-37.

Antweiler, R.C., Patton, C.J., and Taylor, H.E., 1993, Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in nautral water samples: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-638, 40 p.

Avanzino, R.J., and Kennedy, V.C., 1993, Long-term frozen storage of streamwater samples for dissolved orthophosphate, nitrate plus nitrate, and ammonia analysis: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 10, p. 3,357-3,362, 93WR01684, doi:10.1029/93WR01684.

B

Baedecker, M.J., 1994, Field and laboratory results--getting the whole picture, in Symposium on Intrinsic Bioremediation of Ground Water, Denver, Colorado, August 30-September 1, 1994: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. 41-46.

Baesman, S.M., and Miller, L.G., 2005, Laboratory determination of the carbon kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for reactions of methyl halides with various nucleophiles in solution: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, v. 52, p. 203-219, doi:10.1007/s10874-005-1904-0.

Baker, R.J., 1993, A laboratory method for quantifying the rate of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in unsaturated porous media: Philadelphia, Pa., Drexel University, Environmental Studies Institute, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 235 p.

Baker, R.J., Baehr, A.L., and Lahvis, M.A., 1999, Equilibrium vapor method to determine the concentration of inorganic carbon and other compounds in water samples, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 103-112.

Baker, R.J., Fischer, J.M., Smith, N.P., Koehnlein, S.A., and Baehr, A.L., 1991, Gas-chromatographic methods for determining the composition of the vapor phase in gasoline-contaminated soils, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 280-286.

Ball, J.W., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1994, A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colormetric techniques for the determination of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4122, 151 p.

Barber, L.B., 2014, Emerging contaminants, in Ahuja, S., ed., Comprehensive Water Quality and Purification: Waltham, Mass., Elsevier, v. 1, p. 245-266, ISBN:9780123821829.

Barber, L.B., 2003, Characterization of dissolved organic matter by concentration, fractionation, and molecular weight determination (Chapter 8), in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-quality changes and organic-carbon characterization during recharge with recycled water at a research basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California, 1991-1996: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, p. 78-88.

Barber, L.B., 2002, Long term fate of organic micro-pollutants in the subsurface environment, Cape Cod, Massachusetts--From field studies to experimentation, in Aiken, G.R., and Kuniansky, E.L., eds., U.S. Geological Survey artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings, Sacramento, California, April 2-4, 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-89, p. 34-37.

Barber, L.B., Brown, G.K., Writer, J.H., and Zaugg, S.A., 1998, Analysis of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage effluents using continuous liquid-liquid extraction with derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in Proceedings of the American Chemical Society National Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, August 23-27, 1998: v. 38, p. 273-275.

Barber, L.B., II, 1987, Influence of geochemical heterogeneity in a sand and gravel aquifer on the transport of nonionic organic solutes--Methods of sediment characterization, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. B-45-B-51.

Barber, L.B., II, Lewis, J.A., Schroeder, M.P., and Gibs, J., 1989, Applicability of conventional methods for analysis of trace-level organic contaminants in natural waters, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 613.

Barber, L.B., II, Thurman, E.M., and Schroeder, M.P., 1984, Closed-loop stripping combined with capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis to define a semi-volatile organic contaminant plume, in LeBlanc, D.R., ed., Movement and fate of solutes in a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water, Cape Cod, Massachusetts--U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program--Papers presented at the toxic waste technical meeting, Tucson, Arizona, March 20-22, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-475, p. 89-114.

Barber, L.B., II, Thurman, E.M., Takahashi, Y., and Noriega, M.C., 1992, Comparison of purge and trap GC/MS and purgeable organic chloride analysis for monitoring volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons: Ground Water, v. 30, no. 6, p. 836-848, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1992.tb01565.x.

Bastian, K.C., Thurman, E.M., and Rebich, R.A., 1998, Comparison of enzyme-linked immunoassay with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for analysis of the cotton herbicide fluometuron, in 28th Mississippi Water Resources Conference, Proceedings, Raymond, Mississippi, April 7-8, 1998: Starkville, Miss., Mississippi State University, p. 45-55.

Batt, A.L., Furlong, E.T., Mash, H.E., Glassmeyer, S.T., and Kolpin, D.W., 2017, The importance of quality control in validating concentrations of contaminants of emerging concern in source and treated drinking water samples: Science of the Total Environment, v. 579, p. 1618-1628, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.127.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., and Burkhardt, M.R., 2001, Concentration of selected sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, and imadazolinone herbicides, other pesticides, and nutrients in 71 streams, 5 reservoir outflows, and 25 wells in the midwestern United States, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4225, 123 p.

Bergamaschi, B.A., Baston, D.S., Crepeau, K.L., and Kuivila, K.M., 1999, Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas-chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry: Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, v. 69, p. 305-319, doi:10.1080/02772249909358713.

Böhlke, J.K., Gwinn, C.J., and Coplen, T.B., 1993, New reference materials for nitrogen-isotope-ratio measurements: Geostandards Newsletter, v. 17, p. 159-164.

Böhlke, J.K., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Coplen, T.B., 2003, New reference materials for oxygen isotopes in nitrate, in International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology and Integrated Water Resources Management (IAEA-CSP-23), Vienna, Austria, May 19-23, 2003: International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 477-478.

Böhlke, J.K., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Coplen, T.B., 2003, Oxygen isotopes in nitrate--New reference materials for 180:170:160 measurements and observations on nitrate-water equilibration: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 17, p. 1835-1846, doi:10.1002/rcm.1123.

Böhlke, J.K., Smith, R.L., and Hannon, J.E., 2007, Isotopic analysis of N and O in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O: Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 15, p. 5888-5895, doi:10.1021/ac070176k.

Borrok, D.M., Wanty, R.B., Ridly, W.I., Wolf, R., Lamothe, P.J., and Adams, M., 2007, Separation of copper, iron, and zinc from complex aqueous solutions for isotopic measurement: Chemical Geology, v. 242, no. 3-4, p. 400-414, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.04.004.

Brand, W.A., Coplen, T.B., Aerts-Bijma, A.T.A., Böhlke, J.K., Gehre, M., Geilman, H., Gröning, M., Jansen, H.G., Meijer, H.A.J., Mroczkowski, S.J., Qi, H., Soergel, K., Stuart-Williams, H., Weise, S.M., and Werner, R.A., 2009, Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 23, no. 7, p. 999-1,019, doi:10.1002/rcm.3958.

Brenner, I.B., and Taylor, H.E., 1992, A critical review of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for geoanalysis, geochemistry and hydrology, Part 1, Analytical performance: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, v. 11, p. 452-463, doi:10.1080/10408349208051650.

Brinton, T.I., Antweiler, R.C., and Taylor, H.E., 1996, Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-426-A, 16 p.

Brown, G.K., MacCarthy, P., and Leenheer, J.A., 1999, Simultaneous determination of Ca, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd binding strength with fulvic acid fractions by Schubert's method: Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 402, p. 169-181, doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00530-9.

Brown, G.K., Zaugg, S.D., and Barber, L.B., 1999, Wastewater analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 431-435.

Brown, P.A., and Leenheer, J.A., 1994, Significance of density determination in molecular structures comprising fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, in Averett, R.C., Leenheer, J.A., McKnight, D.M., and Thorn, K.A., eds., Humic substances in the Suwannee River, Georgia--Interactions, properties, and proposed structures: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2373, p. 183-194.

Buchmiller, R.C., 1988, Use of gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector to identify organic substances in ground water, in Ragone, S.E., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the second technical meeting, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 21-25, 1985: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-481, p. F-17.

Buchwalter, D.B., Cain, D.J., Clements, W.H., and Luoma, S.N., 2008, Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 42, no. 8, p. 3,117-3,117, doi:10.1021/es703130e.

Buchwalter, D.B., Cain, D.J., Clements, W.H., and Luoma, S.N., 2007, Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, no. 13, p. 4,821-4,828, doi:10.1021/es070464y.

Bunn, A.L., 1992, Techniques for enumerating protozoa in saturated subsurface sediments: Durham, University of New Hampshire, Department of Civil Engineering, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 317 p.

Burkhardt, M.R., ReVello, R.C., Smith, S.G., and Zaugg, s.D., 2005, Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for industrial and anthropogenic waste-indicator compounds in sediment: Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 534, no. 1, p. 89-100, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.023.

Burkhardt, M.R., Zaugg, S.D., Smith, S.G., and ReVello, R.C., 2006, Determination of wastewater compounds in sediment and soil by pressurized solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction, and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, sec. B, chap. 2, 33 p.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 2010, A rapid method for the measurement of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), and Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) in hydrologic tracer studies: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 11, no. 11, doi:10.1029/2010gc003312.

Busenberg, E., and Plummer, L.N., 2000, Dating young groundwater with sulfur hexafluoride--Natural and anthropogenic sources of sulfur hexafluoride: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 10, p. 3011-3030, 2000WR900151, doi:10.1029/2000WR900151.

Busenberg, E., Plummer, L.N., Cook, P.G., Solomon, D.K., Han, L.F., Gröning, M., and Oster, H., 2006, Sampling and analytical methods (chapter 12), in IAEA, ed., Use of chlorofluorocarbons in hydrology--A guidebook: Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 199-220.

C

Cahill, J.D., 2000, Determination of human pharmaceuticals in surface water using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: University of Colorado at Denver, unpublished MS thesis, 112 p.

Cahill, J.D., Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., Kolpin, D.W., and Anderson, L.G., 2004, Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 1041, no. 1-2, p. 171-180, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.04.005.

Capel, P.D., and Barbeau, D.S., 1991, Method for the systematic evaluation of organic chemical retention by solid-phase-extraction columns, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 330-333.

Caputo, M.C., and Nimmo, J.R., 2005, Quasi-steady centrifuge method for unsaturated hydraulic properties: Water Resources Research, v. 41, W11504, doi:10.1029/2005WR003957.

Carmody, R.W., Plummer, L.N., Busenberg, E., and Coplen, T.B., 1998, Methods for collection of dissolved sulfate and sulfide and analysis of their sulfur isotopic composition: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-234, 91 p.

Carter, J.L., and Resh, V.H., 2001, After site selection and before data analysis--sampling, sorting, and laboratory procedures used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate monitoring programs by USA state agencies: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 20, no. 4, p. 658-682, doi:10.2307/1468095.

Casciotti, K.L., Böhlke, J.K., McIlvin, M.R., Mroczkowski, S.J., and Hannon, J.E., 2007, Oxygen isotopes in nitrite--Analysis, calibration, and equilibration: Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 6, p. 2427-2436, doi:10.1021/ac061598h.

Casciotti, K.L., Sigman, D.M., Hastings, M., Böhlke, J.K., and Hilkert, A., 2002, Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method: Analytical Chemistry, v. 74, p. 4905-4912, doi:10.1021/ac020113w.

Chalmers, A., Nilles, M.A., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Prestbo, E., 2005, Analysis of mercury wet-deposition data collected with a newly designed sampler, Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area, 2002-04: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1368, 17 p.

Chang, C.C., Langston, J., Riggs, M., Campbell, D.H., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C., 1999, A method for nitrate collection for δ15N and δ18O analysis from waters with low nitrate concentrations: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 56, p. 1856-1860, doi:10.1139/f99-126.

Chen, W., Westerhoff, P., Leenheer, J.A., and Booksh, K., 2003, Florescence excitation-emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 37, p. 5701-5710, doi:10.1021/es034354c.

Chiou, C.T., 2002, Partition and adsorption of organic contaminants in environmental systems: New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 257 p., ISBN:0-471-23325-0.

Chiou, C.T., and Rutherford, D.W., 1996, Determination of surface area of soil components by sorption of nitrogen and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether vapors and evaluation of adsorption, partition and cation solvation processes, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 375-380.

Chow, N.A., Griffin, D., Barker, B., Loparev, V.N., and Litvintseva, A.P., 2016, Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona: Medical Mycology, v. 54, no. 6, p. 584-592, doi:10.1093/mmy/myw022.

Christian, T., Schneider, R.J., Barber, H.A., Skutlarek, D., Meyer, M.T., and Goldbach, H.E., 2003, Determination of antibiotic residues in manure, soil, and surface waters: Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, v. 31, no. 1, p. 36-44, doi:10.1002/aheh.200390014.

Church, C.D., Isabelle, L.M., Pankow, J.F., Rose, D.L., and Tratnyek, P.G., 1997, Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 12, p. 3723-3726, doi:10.1021/es9705452.

Coes, A.L., Paretti, N.V., Foreman, W.T., Iverson, J.L., and Alvarez, D.A., 2014, Sampling trace organic compounds in water--A comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods: Science of the Total Environment, v. 473–474, p. 731-741, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.082.

Coplen, T.B., 2010, Sequential, time-integrated collector of precipitation, ground water, and surface water for analysis of isotopes: U.S. Patent No. 7,687,028.

Coplen, T.B., Böhlke, J.K., and Casciotti, K.L., 2004, Using dual bacterial denitrification to improve δ15N determinations of nitrates containing mass independent 17O: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 18, p. 245-250, doi:10.1002/rcm.1318.

Coplen, T.B., and Haiping, Q., 2010, Applying the silver-tube introduction method for thermal conversion elemental analyses and a new delta2H value for NBS 22 oil: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, v. 24, no. 15, p. 2,269-2,276, doi:10.1002/rcm.4638.

Coplen, T.B., and Qi, H., 2010, Caution on the use of liquid nitrogen traps in stable hydrogen isotope-ratio mass spectrometry: Analytical Chemistry, v. 82, no. 18, p. 7849-7851, doi:10.1021/ac101570f.

Coplen, T.B., and Qi, H., 2009, Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories--A case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, v. 45, no. 2, p. 126-134, doi:10.1080/10256010902871952.

Coston, J.A., Kent, D.B., and Abrams, R.H., 1998, Methods of analysis of selected inorganic solutes, in Savoie, J., and LeBlanc, D.R., eds., Water-quality data and methods of analysis for samples collected near a plume of sewage-contaminated ground water, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1993-94: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4269, p. 19-21.

Crepeau, K.L., Baker, L.M., and Kuivila, K.M., 2000, Method of analysis and quality assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District organic chemistry laboratory, 1996-1999: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-229, 19 p.

Crepeau, K.L., Domagalski, J.L., and Kuivila, K.M., 1994, Methods of analysis and quality assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Laboratory, Sacramento, California--Determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gaschromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-362, 17 p.

Curtis, G.P., Fox, P., Kohler, M., and Davis, J.A., 2004, Comparison of in situ uranium K D values with a laboratory determined surface complexation model: Applied Geochemistry, v. 19, p. 1643-1653, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2004.03.004.

D

Dankwardt, A., Thurman, E.M., and Hock, B., 1997, Terbuthylazine and deethylterbuthylazine in rain and surface water--Determination by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, v. 1, p. 5-10.

Dankwardt, A., Wust, S., Elling, W., Thurman, E.M., and Hock, B., 1994, Determination of atrazine in rainfall and surface water in Germany by enzyme immunoassay: Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 1, no. 4, p. 196-204.

Day-Lewis, F.D., Johnson, C.D., Slater, L.D., Robinson, J.L., Williams, J.H., Boyden, C.L., Werkema, D., and Lane, J.W., Jr., 2015, The Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST) v1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Software Release 06 January 2016 (More information on the FRGT-MST tool).

DeWild, J.F., Olson, M.L., and Olund, S.D., 2002, Determination of methyl mercury by aqueous phase ethylation, followed by gas chromatographic separation with cold vapor atomic fluorescence detection: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-445, 14 p.

DeWild, J.F., Olund, S.D., Olson, M.L., and Tate, M.T., 2004, Methods for the preparation and analysis of solids and suspended solids for methylmercury: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, sec. A, chap. 7, 21 p.

DiFilippo, E.L., and Eganhouse, R.P., 2010, Assessment of PDMS-Water partition coefficients--Implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 44, no. 18, p. 6917-6925, doi:10.1021/es101103x.

Diamond, J., Altenburger, R., Coors, A., Dyer, S., Focazio, M., Kidd, K., Koelmans, A.A., Leung, K.M.Y., Servos, M., Snape, J., Tolls, J., and Zhang, X., 2017, Use of prospective and retrospective risk assessment methods that simplify chemical mixtures associated with treated domestic wastewater discharges: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi:10.1002/etc.4013.

Diehl, S.F., Hageman, P.L., Koenig, A.E., Seal Ii, R.R., Smith, K.S., Benzel, W.M., and Driscoll, R.L., 2010, Techniques to understand metal leaching from ore minerals in mine-waste material, in Proceedings of the 2010 Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Phoenix, Arizona, February 28-March 3, 2010: Red Hook, NY, Curran Associates, Inc., p. 614-616, ISBN:9781617380822.

Dittman, J.A., Shanley, J.B., Driscoll, C.T., Aiken, G.R., Chalmers, A.T., and Towse, J.E., 2009, Ultraviolet absorbance as a proxy for total dissolved mercury in streams: Environmental Pollution, v. 157, no. 6, p. 1953-1956, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.01.031.

Dombrowski, T.R., Thurman, E.M., and Mohrman, G.B., 1997, Evaluation of immunoassay for the determination of pesticides at a large-scale groundwater contamination site, in Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Immunochemical technology for environmental applications: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 657, p. 221-233.

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Thorn, K.A., 1998, 15N NMR studies on the covalent binding of the reductive degradative products of TNT to humic substances, model compounds, and peat, in Pennington, J.C., and others, eds., Explosives conjugation products in remediation matrices, Interim Report 2, Chapter 2: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Technical Report SERDP-98-12, p. 7-37.

Thorn, K.A., 1997, Covalent binding of the reductive degradation products of TNT to humic substances investigated by N-15 NMR, in Preprints of Papers Presented at the 213th ACS National Meeting, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Francisco, California, April 13-17, 1997: American Chemical Society, v. 37, no. 1, p. 305-306.

Thorn, K.A., 1996, Examples of NMR in the analysis of environmental contaminants and contaminant interactions, Invited Papers, in Symposium on New Frontiers in Environmental Chemistry, 211th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, March 24-28, 1996: American Chemical Society.

Thorn, K.A., 1987, The use of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the analysis of complex samples of environmental interest, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. E-13-E-17.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1989, Characterization of nonvolatile organic acids resulting from the biodegradation of crude oil by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 41-51.

Thorn, K.A., Arterburn, J.B., and Mikita, M.A., 1992, Nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 NMR investigation of hydroxylamine derivatzed humic substances: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 26, no. 1, p. 107-116, doi:10.1021/es00025a011.

Thorn, K.A., and Cox, L.G., 2015, Probing the carbonyl functionality of a petroleum resin and asphaltene through oximation and Schiff base formation in conjunction with N-15 NMR: PLoS ONE, v. 10, no. 11, e0142452, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142452.

Thorn, K.A., Rostad, C.E., and Noyes, T.I., 2003, Isolation and characterization of colloids (Chapter 7), in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-quality changes and organic-carbon characterization during recharge with recycled water at a research basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, p. 61-77.

Thorn, K.A., Rostad, C.E., and Noyes, T.I., 1997, Spectroscopic characterization of colloids in a ground recharge system for treated sewage effluent, in Preprints of Papers Presented at the 214th ACS National Meeting, Division of Environmental Chemistry, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 7-11, 1997: American Chemical Society, v. 37, no. 2.

Thorn, K.A., Thorne, P.G., and Cox, L.G., 2004, Alkaline hydrolysis/polymerization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene--Characterization of products by 13C and 15N NMR: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 38, no. 7, p. 2224-2231, doi:10.1021/es030655a.

Thorn, K.A., and Younger, S.J., 2003, Characterization of dissolved organic matter by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (Chapter 10), in Schroeder, R.A., ed., Water-Quality Changes and Organic-Carbon Characterization During Recharge with Recycled Water at a Research Basin in Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles, California: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4146, p. 102-108.

Thurman, E.M., 1984, Determination of aquatic humic substances in natural waters, in Meyers, E.L., ed., Selected papers in the hydrologic sciences, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2262, p. 47-52.

Thurman, E.M., and Aga, D.S., 2001, Detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using the cross reactivity in immunoassays: Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, v. 84, no. 1, p. 163-167 (now Journal of AOAC International).

Thurman, E.M., and Ferrer, I., 2003, Comparison of quadrupole-time-of-flight, triple quadrupole, and ion-trap mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry for the analysis of emerging contaminants, in Thurman, E.M., and Ferrer, I., eds., Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/ MS/MS and Time of Flight MS--Analysis of Emerging Contaminants (Orlando, Fla. meeting): American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 850, p. 14-31.

Thurman, E.M., Ferrer, I., and Barcelo, D., 2001, Choosing between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization interfaces for the HPLC/MS analysis of pesticides: Analytical Chemistry, v. 73, no. 22, p. 5441-5449, doi:10.1021/ac010506f.

Thurman, E.M., Ferrer, I., and Furlong, E.T., 2003, Time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and quadrupole ion trap MS/MS for the discovery of herbicide degradates in groundwater, in Ferrer, I., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Liquid Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry, MS/MS and Time of Flight MS--Analysis of Emerging Contaminants (Orlando meeting): American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 850, p. 128-144.

Thurman, E.M., Ferrer, I., and Parry, R., 2002, Accurate mass analysis of ethanesulfonic acid degradates of acetochlor and alachlor using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography, v. 957, no. 1, p. 3-9, doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)01470-4.

Thurman, E.M., and Malcolm, R.L., 1983, Structural study of humic substances--New approaches and methods, in Christman, R.F., and Gjessing, E.T., eds., Aquatic and terrestrial humic materials: Ann Arbor, Michigan., Ann Arbor Science, p. 1-24.

Thurman, E.M., Meyer, M., and Adams, C.D., 1991, Analysis of atrazine metabolites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 568-571.

Thurman, E.M., Meyer, M., Pomes, M., Perry, C.A., and Schwab, P., 1990, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the determination of triazine herbicides in water: Analytical Chemistry, v. 62, p. 2043-2048, doi:10.1021/ac00217a027.

Thurman, E.M., and Snavely, K., 2000, Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry: Trends in Analytical Chemistry, v. 19, no. 1, p. 18-26, doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00175-2.

Thurman, E.M., Willoughby, T., Barber, L.B., II, and Thorn, K.A., 1987, Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry: Analytical Chemistry, v. 59, no. 14, p. 1798-1802, doi:10.1021/ac00141a013.

Thurman, E.M., Zimmerman, L.R., Aga, D.S., and Gilliom, R.J., 2001, Regional water-quality analysis of 2,4-D and dicamba in river water using gas chromatography - isotope dilution mass spectrometry: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 3, p. 185-198, doi:10.1080/03067310108044398.

Tindall, J.A., Hemmen, K., and Dowd, J.F., 1992, An improved method for field extraction and laboratory analysis of large, intact soil cores: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 21, no. 2, p. 259-263, doi:10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100020017x.

Topping, B.R., and Kuwabara, J.S., 1999, Flow-injection - ICP-MS method applied to benthic flux studies of San Francisco Bay, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 131-134.

Tush, D., Loftin, K.A., and Meyer, M.T., 2013, Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 1319, p. 80-87, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2013.10.032.

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Ulrich, E.M., Morrison, C.N., Goldsmith, M.R., and Foreman, W.T., 2012, Chiral pesticides--Identification, description, and environmental implications, in Whitacre, D.M., ed., Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: New York, Springer U.S., v. 217, p. 1-74, ISBN:978-1-4614-2329-4.

Urquhart, E.A., Schaeffer, B.A., Stumpf, R.P., Loftin, K.A., and Werdell, P.J., 2017, A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing: Harmful Algae, v. 67, p. 144-152, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2017.06.001.

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Vargo, J.D., Lee, E.A., and Fuhrman, J.D., 2003, Interlaboratory comparison and validation of methods for chloroacetanilide and chloroacetamide solid degradates in environmental waters, in Ferrer, I., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MS/MS and Time-of-Flight MS--Analysis of emerging contaminants: American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 850, p. 273-290.

Vengosh, A., Spivak, A.J., Johannesson, K.J., Lyons, W.B., Weaver, T.R., Morgenstern, U., Michel, R.L., and Rabryka-Martin, J., 1999, δ11B, Rare earth elements δ37Cl, 32Si, 35S, 129I, in Cook, P., and Herczeg, A.L., eds., Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology: Boston, Kluver Academic Publishers, p. 479-510.

Verplanck, P.L., Antweiler, R.C., Nordstrom, D.K., and Taylor, H.E., 2001, Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations: Applied Geochemistry, v. 16, no. 2, p. 231-244, doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(00)00030-5.

Verstraeten, I.M., Steele, G.V., Böhlke, J.K., Kraemer, T.F., Wilson, K.E., and Carnes, A.E., 2001, Selected field and analytical methods and analytical results in the Dutch Flats area, western Nebraska, 1995-99: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-413, 53 p.

Villinski, J.E., O'Day, P.A., Corley, T.L., and Conklin, M.H., 1999, A flow-through cell for in-situ, real time X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of geochemical reactions, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 217-225.

Vivit, D.V., and Jenne, E.Q., 1986, Selected methods for iron(II, III) and dissolved sulfide(-II) determinations in geothennal waters: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-4189, 16 p.

Vivit, D.V., Thorn, K.A., and Hem, J.D., 1993, Comparative results of 27Al NMR spectrometric and ferron colorimetric analyses of hydroxyaluminum hydrolysis products in mildly acidic aqueous systems, in Preprints of papers presented at the 205th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Denver, Colo., March 28-April 2, 1993: Washingtion, D.C., American Chemical Society, v. 33, no. 1, p. 148-151.

Vroblesky, D.A., Nietch, C.T., and Morris, J.T., 1999, Chlorinated ethenes from ground water in tree trunks, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 607-614.

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Walker, C.E., Schrock, R.M., Reilly, T.J., and Baehr, A.L., 2005, A direct immunoassay for detecting diatoms in ground water as an indicator of the direct influence of surface water: Journal of Applied Phycology, v. 17, no. 1, p. 81-90, doi:10.1007/s10811-005-4848-5.

Wallenstein, M.D., Myrold, D.D., Firestone, M., and Voytek, M., 2006, Environmental controls on denitrifying communities and denitrification rates--Insights from molecular methods: Ecological Applications, v. 16, no. 6, p. 2143-2152, doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[2143:ECODCA]2.0.CO;2.

Waychunas, G.A., Davis, J.S., and Fuller, C.C., 1995, Geometry of sorbed arsenate on ferrihydrite and crystalline FeOOH--Re-evaluation of EXAFS results and topological factors in predicting sorbate geometry and evidence for monodentate complexes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 3655-3661, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)00276-6.

Waychunas, G.A., Fuller, C.C., Davis, J.A., and Rehr, J.J., 2003, Surface complexation and precipitate geometry of aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite--II. XANES analysis and simulation: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 67, p. 1031-1043, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01280-2.

Waychunas, G.A., Fuller, C.C., Rea, B.A., and Davis, J.A., 1996, Wide angle X-ray scattering (WQXS) study of "two-line" ferrihydrite structure--Effect of arsenate sorption and counterion variation and comparison with EXAFS results: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 60, p. 1765-1782, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(96)89830-9.

Webb, S.M., Fuller, C.C., Tebo, B.M., and Bargar, J.R., 2006, Determination of uranyl incorporation into biogenic manganese oxides using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scattering: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 771-777, doi:10.1021/es051679f.

Weishaar, J.L., Aiken, G.R., Bergamaschi, B.A., Fram, M.S., and Fujii, R., 2003, Evaluation of specific ultra-violet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 37, no. 20, p. 4702-4708, doi:10.1021/es030360x.

Weiss, J.M., McKay, A.J., DeRito, C., Watanabe, C., Thorn, K.A., and Madsen, E.L., 2004, Development and application of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of bound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene residues in soil: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 38, no. 7, p. 2167-2174, doi:10.1021/es034911v.

Weissinger, R., Battaglin, W.A., and Bradley, P.M., 2016, Screening for contaminants of emerging concern in Northern Colorado Plateau Network waters--2015 surface-water data: Natural Resource Report NPS/NCPN/NRR--2016/1239, 58 p.

Wershaw, R.L., Aiken, G.R., Leenheer, J.A., and Tregellas, J., 2000, Structural-group quantitation by CP/MAS 13C NMR measurements of dissolved organic matter from natural waters, in Davies, G., and Ghabbour, E.A., eds., Humic Substances--Versatile Components of Plants, Soil, and Water: Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 63-82.

Wershaw, R.L., Fishman, M.J., and Grabbe, R.R., 1987, Methods for the determination of organic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, sec. A, chap. 3, 80 p.

Wershaw, R.L., and Kennedy, K.R., 1998, Use of 13C NMR and FTIR for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and compositing. IV. Characterization of humic and fulvic acids extracted from senescent leaves, in Davies, G., and Ghabbour, E.A., eds., Humic substances structures, properties and uses: Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 61-68.

Wershaw, R.L., Kennedy, K.R., and Henrich, J.E., 1998, Use of 13C NMR and FTIR for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and compositing. II. Changes in leaf composition after senescence, in Davies, G., and Ghabbour, E.A., eds., Humic substances structures, properties, and uses: Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 29-46.

Wershaw, R.L., Leenheer, J.A., and Kennedy, K.R., 1999, Use of 13C NMR and FTIR for elucidation of degradation pathways during senescence and litter decomposition of Aspen leaves, in Davies, C., and Ghabbour, E.A., eds., Understanding humic substances--Advanced methods, properties and applications: Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 19-30.

Wershaw, R.L., Leenheer, J.A., and Kennedy, K.R., 1998, Use of 13C NMR and FTIR for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and compositing. III. Characterization of leachate from different types of leaves, in Davies, G., and Ghabbour, E.A., eds., Humic substances structures, properties, and uses: Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 47-60.

Wershaw, R.L., Leenheer, J.A., Kennedy, K.R., and Noyes, T.I., 1996, Use of 13C NMR and FTIR for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and composting I.--Early stage leaf degradation: Soil Science, v. 161, p. 667-679, doi:10.1097/00010694-199610000-00004.

Wershaw, R.L., Llaguno, E.C., and Leenheer, J.A., 1996, Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR: Colloids and Surfaces A--Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, v. 108, p. 213-223, doi:10.1016/0927-7757(95)03401-3.

Wershaw, R.L., Rutherford, D.W., Rostad, C.E., Garbarino, J.R., Ferrer, I., Kennedy, K.R., Momplaisir, G., and Grange, A., 2003, Mass spectrometric identification of an azobenzene derivative produced by smectite-catalyzed conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylar-sonic acid: Talanta, v. 59, no. 6, p. 1219-1226, doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00032-8.

Winfield, K.A., and Nimmo, J.R., 2002, Controlled liquid-volume [water retention and storage], in Dane, J.H., and Topp, G.C., eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4, Physical Methods: Madison, Wisconsin, Soil Science Society of America, p. 698-703, 717-720.

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Ye, Z., Weinberg, H.S., and Meyer, M.T., 2007, Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromotagrphy electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: Analytical Chemistry, v. 79, no. 3, p. 1135-1144, doi:10.1021/ac060972a.

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Zamora, C., Majewski, M.S., and Foreman, W.T., 2013, Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5023, xi, 180 p. p.

Zaugg, S.D., Burkhardt, M.R., Burbank, T.L., Olson, M.C., Iverson, J.L., and Schroeder, M.P., 2006, Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, sec. B, chap. 3, 44 p.

Zaugg, S.D., Phillips, P.J., and Smith, S.G., 2014, Analysis of pharmaceutical and other wastewater compounds in filtered and unfiltered water samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1297, 24 p.

Zaugg, S.D., Smith, S.G., and Schroeder, M.P., 2006, Determination of wastewater compounds in whole water by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, sec, B, chap. 4, 30 p.

Zaugg, S.D., Smith, S.G., Schroeder, M.P., Barber, L.B., and Burkhardt, M.R., 2002, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory--Determination of wastewater compounds by polystyrene-divinylbenzene solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4186, 37 p.

Zhang, C., Eganhouse, R.P., Pontolillo, J., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Wang, Y., 2012, Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Journal of Chromatography A, v. 1230, p. 110-116, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.12.109.

Zhang, M., Takahashi, M., Morin, R.H., Endo, H., and Esaki, T., 2001, Determining the hydraulic properties of saturated, low-permeability geological materials in the laboratory--Advances in theory and practice, in Proceedings of the ASTM Symposium on Evaluation and Remediation of Low-Permeability and Dual-Porosity Environments, Reno, Nevada, January 25-26, 2001: p. 40-55.

Zielinski, R.A., Rice, C.A., and Otton, J.K., 2003, Use of soil extracts to define the extent of brine-impacted soils and bedrock at oil production site "B", Osage-Skiatook Project, northeastern Oklahoma, in Sublette, K., ed., 9th International Petroleum Environmental Conference Special Session--Fate and Transport of Brine and Hydrocarbon Releases in Soils and Water, Northeast Oklahoma, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 22-25, 2002: IPEC, p. 12 pages.

Zimmerman, L.R., Hostetler, K.A., and Thurman, E.M., 2000, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-182, 30 p.

Zimmerman, L.R., Schneider, R.J., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Analysis and detection of the herbicides dimethenamid and flufenacet and their sulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in natural water: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 50, no. 5, p. 1045-1052, doi:10.1021/jf010779b.

Zimmerman, L.R., Strahan, A.P., and Thurman, E.M., 2001, Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of four selected mosquito insecticides and a synergist in water using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-273, 11 p.

Zimmerman, L.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1999, Method of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-634, 21 p.

Zimmerman, L.R., Thurman, E.M., and Bastian, K.C., 2000, Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 169-179, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00540-9.

Zimmerman, L.R., Thurman, E.M., and Bastian, K.C., 1999, Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 367-379.

Zimmerman, L.R., Ziegler, A.C., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of geosmin and methylisoborneol in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-337, 12 p.


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