Environmental Health - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Investigations of Petroleum Related Contamination

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A

Abbott, M.M., 2003, Real-time kinematic (RTK) surveying at the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research sites, Osage County, Oklahoma, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production--Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, p. 151-159.

Abbott, M.M., 2002, Real-time kinematic surveying at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research sites, Osage County, Oklahoma, in 9th International Petroleum Environmental Conference Special Session--Fate and Transport of Brine and Hydrocarbon Releases in Soils and Water, Northeast Oklahoma, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 22-25, 2002: p. 22.

Abbott, M.M., 2000, Water quality of the Quaternary and Ada-Vamoosa aquifers on the Osage Reservation, Osage County, Oklahoma, 1997, in Sublette, K.L., ed., Environmental Issues and Solutions in Petroleum Exploration, Production and Refining--Proceedings 7th IPEC meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 7-10, 2000: Tulsa, Okla., University of Tulsa, p. 979-1045 (CD-ROM format).

Adams, R.H., Cerecedo-López, R.A., Alejandro-Álvarez, L.A., Domínguez-Rodríguez, V.I., and Nieber, J.L., 2016, Treatment of water-repellent petroleum-contaminated soil from Bemidji, Minnesota, by alkaline desorption: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, v. 13, no. 9, p. 2249-2260, doi:10.1007/s13762-016-1058-4.

Aiken, G., 1996, Studies of the molecular size of dissolved organic carbon fractions downgradient from the oil body at Bemidji, Minnesota, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 641-646.

Aiken, G.R., Capel, P.D., Furlong, E.T., Hult, M.F., and Thorn, K.A., 1991, Mechanisms controlling the transport of organic chemicals in subsurface environments, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 633-637.

Aiken, G.R., and Thorn, K.A., 1989, Variability in the chemistry of nonvolatile organic acids downgradient from the oil body at Bemidji, Minnesota, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 35-40.

Aiken, G.R., Thorn, K.A., and Brooks, M.H., 1987, Nonvolatile organic acids in ground water contaminated with crude oil, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. C-31-C-32.

Akob, D.M., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Lee, K.E., 2015, Microbiology and chemistry of waters produced from hydraulic fracking--A case study: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 2015/10/16, 2015

Akob, D.M., and Lee, K.E., 2017, Examining shifts in stream microbial communities exposed to oil and gas wastewaters: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 03/02/2017, 2017

Akob, D.M., and Lee, K.E., 2016, Indication of unconventional oil and gas wastewaters found in local surface waters: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 09/01/2016, 2016

Akob, D.M., Mumford, A.C., Orem, W.H., Engle, M.A., Klinges, J.G., Kent, D.B., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 2016, Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 50, no. 11, p. 5517-5525, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00428.

Alexander, S.C., and Saar, M.O., 2012, Improved characterization of small “u” for Jacob pumping test analysis methods: Ground Water, v. 50, no. 2, p. 256-265, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00839.x.

Amos, R.T., 2006, Integrated investigation of natural attenuation in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer: Vancouver, BC, Canada, University of British Columbia, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Ph.D. thesis.

Amos, R.T., Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Voytek, M.A., Kirshtein, J.D., Jones, E.J.P., and Blowes, D.W., 2012, Evidence for iron-mediated anaerobic methane oxidation in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer: Geobiology, v. 10, no. 6, p. 506-517, doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2012.00341.x.

Amos, R.T., Bekins, B.A., Delin, G.N., Cozzarelli, I.M., Blowes, D.W., and Kirshtein, J.D., 2011, Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer--Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 125, no. 1-4, p. 13-25, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2011.04.003.

Amos, R.T., and Blowes, D.W., 2008, Versatile direct-push profiler for the investigation volatile compounds near the water table: Water Resources Research, v. 44, no. 1, p. 1-9, W00D17, doi:10.1029/2008WR006936.

Amos, R.T., and Mayer, K.U., 2006, Investigating ebullition in a sand column using dissolved gas analysis and reactive transport modeling: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, p. 5361-5367, doi:10.1021/es0602501.

Amos, R.T., and Mayer, K.U., 2006, Investigating the role of gas bubble formation and entrapment in contaminated aquifers--Reactive transport modeling: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 87, p. 123-154, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2006.04.008.

Amos, R.T., Mayer, K.U., Bekins, B.A., Delin, G.N., and Williams, R.L., 2005, Use of dissolved and vapor-phase gases to investigate methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no. 2, W02001, doi:10.1029/2004WR003433.

Anderson, R.T., and Lovley, D.R., 2000, Hexadecane decay by methanogenesis: Nature, v. 404, p. 722-723, doi:10.1038/35008145.

Anderson, R.T., and Lovley, D.R., 1999, Naphthalene and benzene degradation under Fe(III)-reducing conditions in petroleum-contaminated aquifers: Bioremediation Journal, v. 3, no. 2, p. 121 - 135, doi:10.1080/10889869991219271.

Anderson, R.T., Rooney-Varga, J.N., Gaw, C.V., and Lovley, D.R., 1999, Aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under Fe(III)-reducing conditions, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 177-186.

Anderson, R.T., Rooney-Varga, J.N., Gaw, C.V., and Lovley, D.R., 1998, Anaerobic benzene degradation in the Fe(III) reduction zone of petroleum-contaminated aquifers: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 32, no. 9, p. 1222-1229, doi:10.1021/es9704949.

Appenzeller, T., 1992, Deep-living microbes mount a relentless attack on rock: Science, v. 258, no. 5080, p. 222, doi:10.1126/science.258.5080.222.

Atekwana, E.A., Mewafy, F.M., Abdel Aal, G., Werkema, D.D., Revil, A., and Slater, L.D., 2014, High-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements for investigating magnetic mineral formation during microbial mediated iron reduction: Journal of Geophysical Research--Biogeosciences, v. 119, no. 1, p. 80-94, doi:10.1002/2013JG002414.

B

Baedecker, M.J., Back, W., and Cravotta III, C.A., 1994, Consequences of energy use on water, in Carter, L.M.H., ed., Tenth V.E. McKelvey Forum, Energy and the Environment - Application of geosciences to decision making: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1108, p. 34-36.

Baedecker, M.J., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1994, Biogeochemical processes and migration of aqueous constituents in ground water contaminated with crude oil, in Dutton, A.R., ed., Toxic Substances and the Hydrologic Sciences--Proceedings of the conference, Austin, Texas, April 10-13, 1994: Minneapolis, Minn., American Institute of Hydrology, p. 69-79.

Baedecker, M.J., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1992, The determination and fate of unstable constituents of contaminated groundwater, in Lesage, S., and Jackson, R.E., eds., Groundwater contamination and analysis at hazardous waste sites: New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., p. 425-462.

Baedecker, M.J., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1991, Geochemical modeling of organic degradation reactions in an aquifer contaminated with crude oil, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 627-632.

Baedecker, M.J., Cozzarelli, I.M., Bennett, P.C., Eganhouse, R.P., and Hult, M.F., 1996, Evolution of the contaminant plume in an aquifer contaminated with crude oil, Bemidji, Minnesota, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 613-620.

Baedecker, M.J., Cozzarelli, I.M., Evans, J.R., and Hearn, P.P., 1992, Authigenic mineral formation in aquifers rich in organic material, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Maest, A.S., eds., Low temperature environments, v. 1 of Water-rock interaction--Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction--WRI-7, Park City, Utah, July 13-18, 1992: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 257-261.

Baedecker, M.J., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Hopple, J.A., 1987, The composition and fate of hydrocarbons in a shallow glacial-outwash aquifer, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. C-23-C-24.

Baedecker, M.J., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Phinney, C.S., 1991, Distribution of organic and inorganic constituents in ground water at Galloway Township, New Jersey, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 287-293.

Baedecker, M.J., Cozzarelli, I.M., Siegel, D.I., Bennett, P.C., and Eganhouse, R.P., 1993, Crude oil in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer--III, Biogeochemical reactions and mass balance modeling in anoxic ground water: Applied Geochemistry, v. 8, no. 6, p. 569-586, doi:10.1016/0883-2927(93)90014-8.

Baedecker, M.J., and Eganhouse, R.P., 1991, Partitioning and transport of hydrocarbons from crude oil in a sand and gravel aquifer, in Preprints of Papers Presented at the 201st ACA National Meeting, Division of Environmental Chemistry, Atlanta, Georgia, April 14-19, 1991: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, v. 31, no. 1, p. 463-466.

Baedecker, M.J., Eganhouse, R.P., Bekins, B.A., and Delin, G.N., 2011, Loss of volatile hydrocarbons from an LNAPL oil source: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 126, no. 3-4, p. 140-152, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2011.06.006.

Baedecker, M.J., Eganhouse, R.P., and Lindsay, S.S., 1984, Organic geochemistry of crude-oil contaminants--Preliminary results and project plan, in Hult, M.F., ed., Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site--U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination Study--Papers presented at the toxic-waste technical meeting, Tucson, Arizona, March 20-22, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4188, chap. E, p. 65-79.

Baedecker, M.J., Eganhouse, R.P., Qi, H., Cozzarelli, I.M., Trost, J.J., and Bekins, B.A., 2018, Weathering of oil in a surficial aquifer: Groundwater, doi:10.1111/gwat.12619.

Baedecker, M.J., Siegel, D.I., Bennett, P.C., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 1989, The fate and effects of crude oil in a shallow aquifer--I, The distribution of chemical species and geochemical facies, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 13-20.

Baehr, A.L., 1987, Selective transport of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone due to aqueous and vapor phase partitioning: Water Resources Research, v. 23, no. 10, p. 1,926-1,938, doi:10.1029/WR023i010p01926.

Baehr, A.L., and Baker, R.J., 1995, Use of a reactive gas transport model to determine rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated porous media: Water Resources Research, v. 31, no. 11, p. 2877-2882, 95WR02077, doi:10.1029/95WR02077.

Baehr, A.L., Baker, R.J., and Lahvis, M.A., 1997, Transport of MTBE across the water table to the unsaturated zone at a gasoline-spill site in Beaufort, S.C., in 213th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Proceedings, San Francisco, California, April 13-17, 1997: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, p. 417-418.

Baehr, A.L., and Bruell, C.J., 1990, Application of the Stefan-Maxwell equations to determine limitations of Fick's Law when modeling organic vapor transport in sand columns: Water Resources Research, v. 26, no. 6, p. 1155-1163, doi:10.1029/WR026i006p01155.

Baehr, A.L., Charles, E.G., and Baker, R.J., 2001, Methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in the unsaturated zone and the relation between MTBE in the atmosphere and shallow groundwater: Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 2, p. 223-233, 2000WR900292, doi:10.1029/2000WR900292.

Baehr, A.L., and Corapcioglu, M.Y., 1987, A compositional multiphase model for groundwater contamination by petroleum products--2, numerical solution: Water Resources Research, v. 23, no. 1, p. 201-213, doi:10.1029/WR023i001p00201.

Baehr, A.L., and Fischer, J.M., 1996, Overview of research on the transport, microbial degradation, and remediation of hydrocarbons at a subsurface gasoline-spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 1-6.

Baehr, A.L., Fischer, J.M., Lahvis, M.A., Baker, R.J., and Smith, N.P., 1991, Method for estimating rates of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons based on gas transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline-spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 250-255.

Baehr, A.L., and Hult, M.F., 1991, Evaluation of unsaturated zone air permeability through pneumatic tests: Water Resources Research, v. 27, no. 10, p. 2605-2617, 91WR01655, doi:10.1029/91WR01655.

Baehr, A.L., and Hult, M.F., 1989, Determination of the air-phase permeability tensor of an unsaturated zone at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 55-62.

Baehr, A.L., and Hult, M.F., 1987, Mathematical modeling of hydrocarbon and oxygen transport coupled with microbial degradation in the unsaturated zone, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. C-27-C-28.

Baehr, A.L., and Joss, C.J., 1995, An updated model of induced airflow in the unsaturated zone: Water Resources Research, v. 31, no. 2, p. 417-421, 94WR02423, doi:10.1029/94WR02423.

Baehr, A.L., and Reilly, T.J., 2001, Water quality and occurrence of methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) and other fuel related compounds in lakes and ground water at lakeside communities in Sussex and Morris Counties, New Jersey, 1998-1999: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4149, 86 p.

Baehr, A.L., Stackelberg, P.E., and Baker, R.J., 1999, Evaluation of the atmosphere as a source of volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 1, p. 127-136, 1998WR900030, doi:10.1029/1998WR900030.

Baehr, A.L., and Zapecza, O.S., 1998, Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, summer, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4264, 8 p.

Baker, R.J., 1995, In situ and on-site biodegradation of refined and fuel oils--A review of technical literature 1988-1991: American Petroleum Institute publication number 4627, 146 p.

Baker, R.J., 1993, A laboratory method for quantifying the rate of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in unsaturated porous media: Philadelphia, Pa., Drexel University, Environmental Studies Institute, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 235 p.

Baker, R.J., and Baehr, A.L., 1996, Use of column studies and a reactive transport model to measure biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 43-47.

Baker, R.J., Baehr, A.L., and Lahvis, M.A., 2000, Estimation of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in gasoline-contaminated sediment from measured respiration rates: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 41, no. 1-2, p. 175-192, doi:10.1016/S0169-7722(99)00063-7.

Baker, R.J., Baehr, A.L., and Lahvis, M.A., 1999, Equilibrium vapor method to determine the concentration of inorganic carbon and other compounds in water samples, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 103-112.

Baker, R.J., Best, E.W., and Baehr, A.L., 2002, Used motor oil as a source of MTBE, TAME, and BTEX to ground water: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 22, no. 4, p. 46-51, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2002.tb00770.x.

Baker, R.J., Fischer, J.M., Smith, N.P., Koehnlein, S.A., and Baehr, A.L., 1991, Gas-chromatographic methods for determining the composition of the vapor phase in gasoline-contaminated soils, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 280-286.

Beaver, C.L., Williams, A.E., Atekwana, E.A., Mewafy, F.M., Aal, G.A., Slater, L.D., and Rossbach, S., 2015, Microbial communities associated with zones of elevated magnetic susceptibility in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: Geomicrobiology Journal, p. 00-00, doi:10.1080/01490451.2015.1049676.

Bekins, B., Rittmann, B.E., and MacDonald, J.A., 2001, Natural attenuation strategy for groundwater cleanup focuses on demonstrating cause and effect: Eos, v. 82, no. 5, p. 53, 57-58.

Bekins, B.A., 2003, 2004 Birdsall Dreiss Lecturer Announced: GSA Today, v. 13, no. 8, p. 26.

Bekins, B.A., 2000, Groundwater and microbial processes theme issue - Guest editor's preface: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 8, no. 1, p. 2-3, doi:10.1007/s100400050002.

Bekins, B.A., Baedecker, M.J., Eganhouse, R.P., and Herkelrath, W.N., 2011, Long-term natural attenuation of crude oil in the subsurface, in Schirmer, M., Hoehn, E., and Vogt, T., eds., GQ10--Groundwater Quality Management in a Rapidly Changing World--Procedings of the 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, June 13-18, 2010: International Association of Hydrologic Sciences Publication 342, p. 123-127, ISBN:978-1-907161-16-2.

Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Curtis, G.P., 2005, A simple method for calculating growth rates of petroleum hydrocarbon plumes: Ground Water, v. 0, no. 0, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.00093.x.

Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Erickson, M.L., Steenson, R.A., and Thorn, K.A., 2016, Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites: Groundwater, v. 54, no. 5, p. 681-691, doi:10.1111/gwat.12419 (pdf).

Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Godsy, E.M., Warren, E., Essaid, H.I., and Tuccillo, M.E., 2001, Progression of natural attenuation processes at a crude oil spill site--II, Controls on spatial distribution of microbial populations: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 53, no. 3-4, p. 387-406, doi:10.1016/S0169-7722(01)00175-9.

Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Godsy, E.M., Warren, E.M., Tuccillo, M.E., Essaid, H.I., and Paganelli, V.V., 1999, Chemical and physical controls on microbial populations in the Bemidji Toxics Site crude-oil plume, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 133-142.

Bekins, B.A., Cozzarelli, I.M., Warren, E., and Godsy, E.M., 2002, Microbial ecology of a crude-oil contaminated aquifer, in Thornton, S.F., and Oswald, S.E., eds., Natural and Enhanced Restoration of Groundwater Pollution: International Association of Hydrological Sciences IAHS Red Book Series 275, p. 57-63.

Bekins, B.A., Godsy, E.M., and Warren, E., 1999, Distribution of microbial physiologic types in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil: Microbial Ecology, v. 37, no. 4, p. 263-275, doi:10.1007/s002489900149.

Bekins, B.A., Hostettler, F.D., Herkelrath, W.N., Delin, G.N., Warren, E., and Essaid, H.I., 2005, Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface: Environmental Geosciences, v. 12, no. 2, p. 139-152, doi:10.1306/eg.11160404036.

Bekins, B.A., Lee, K.E., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2016, U.S. Geological Survey identifies crude-oil metabolites in subsurface plumes: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 09/01/2016, 2016

Bennett, P.C., 1991, The chemistry of silica-organic complexation in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 638-640.

Bennett, P.C., 1991, Quartz dissolution in organic-rich aqueous systems: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 55, no. 7, p. 1781-1797, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(91)90023-X.

Bennett, P.C., 1989, Silica mobility in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 5-11.

Bennett, P.C., 1987, Solid phase studies of aquifer sediments, Bemidji, Minnesota, research site, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. C-21-C-22.

Bennett, P.C., 1985, Solid phase studies of quartz and aluminosilicates in an aquifer contaminated by crude petroleum: Syracuse, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, unpublished M.S. thesis, 110 p.

Bennett, P.C., and Hiebert, F.K., 1996, Investigations of microbial weathering of minerals, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 671-677.

Bennett, P.C., and Hiebert, F.K., 1992, Microbial mediation of silicate diagenesis in organic-rich waters, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Maest, A.S., eds., Low temperature environments, v. 1 of Water-rock interaction--Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction--WRI--7, Park City Utah, July 13-18, 1992: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 267-270.

Bennett, P.C., Hiebert, F.K., and Choi, W.J., 1996, Microbial colonization and weathering of silicates in a petroleum-contaminated groundwater: Chemical Geology, v. 132, no. 1-4, p. 45-53, doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(96)00040-X.

Bennett, P.C., Hiebert, F.K., and Rogers, J.R., 2000, Microbial control of mineral-water equilibria--Macroscale to microscale: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 8, no. 1, p. 47-62, doi:10.1007/s100400050007.

Bennett, P.C., Melcer, M., Siegel, D.I., and Hassett, J., 1988, The dissolution and solubility of quartz in dilute aqueous solution of organic acids at 25°C: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 52, no. 6, p. 1,521-1,530, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(88)90222-0.

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Shelobolina, E.S., Anderson, R.T., Vodyanitskii, Y.N., Sivtsov, A.V., Yuretich, R., and Lovley, D.R., 2004, Importance of clay size minerals for Fe(III) respiration in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer: Geobiology, v. 2, no. 1, p. 67-76, doi:10.1111/j.1472-4677.2004.00018.x.

Siegel, D.I., 1987, Geochemical facies and mineral dissolution, Bemidji, Minnesota, research site, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. C-13-C-15.

Siegel, D.I., Baedecker, M.J., and Bennett, P., 1986, The effects of petroleum degradation on inorganic water-rock reactions, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 8-17, 1986: International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, p. 524-527.

Siegel, D.I., Bennett, P.C., Baedecker, M.J., Berndt, M.P., and Franzi, D.A., 1988, Inorganic geochemistry of ground water and aquifer matrix--First-year results, in Ragone, S.E., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the second technical meeting, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 21-25, 1985: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-481, p. C-17-C-20.

Siegel, D.I., and Franzi, D.A., 1984, Inorganic geochemistry of ground-water and sediments in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil--Preliminary results and project plan, in Hult, M.F., ed., Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site--U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination Study--Papers presented at the toxic-waste technical meeting, Tucson, Arizona, March 20-22, 1984: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4188, chap. G, p. 87-95.

Sihota, N.J., and Mayer, K.U., 2015, Comparison of source zone natural attenuation rates at crude oil and ethanol-blended fuel release sites: Bioremediation Journal, v. 19, no. 3, p. 218-230, doi:10.1080/10889868.2014.995373.

Sihota, N.J., and Mayer, K.U., 2012, Characterizing vadose zone hydrocarbon biodegradation using carbon dioxide effluxes, isotopes, and reactive transport modeling: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 11, no. 4, doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0204.

Sihota, N.J., Singurindy, O., and Mayer, K.U., 2011, CO2-efflux measurements for evaluating source zone natural attenuation rates in a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 45, no. 2, p. 482-488, doi:10.1021/es1032585.

Sihota, N.J., Trost, J.J., Bekins, B.A., Berg, A., Delin, G.N., Mason, B., Warren, E., and Mayer, K.U., 2016, Seasonal variability in vadose zone biodegradation at a crude oil pipeline rupture site: Vadose Zone Journal, v. 15, no. 5, doi:10.2136/vzj2015.09.0125.

Sihota, N.J.J., 2014, Novel approaches for quantifying source zone natural attenuation of fossil and alternative fuels: Vancouver, B.C., Canada, University of British Columbia, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Sirivedhin, T., and Dallbaumann, L., 2004, Organic matrix in produced water from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site, Osage County, Oklahoma: Chemosphere, v. 57, p. 463-469, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.05.034.

Smith, B.D., Bisdorf, R.J., Horton, R.J., Otton, J.K., and Hutton, R.S., 2003, Preliminary geophysical characterization of two oil production sites, Osage County, Oklahoma -- Osage Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Project, in Sublette, K., ed., 9th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 22-25, 2002: IPEC, p. 20 pages.

Smith, B.D., Bisdorf, R.J., Horton, R.J., Otton, J.K., and Hutton, R.S., 2003, Preliminary geophysical characterization of two oil production sites, Osage County, Oklahoma--Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research project, in Kharaka, J.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production--Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sties, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, p. 43-56.

Smith, B.D., Otton, J.K., Zielinski, R.A., Abbott, M.M., and Huang, H., 2004, Conductivity depth imaging of areas of shallow brine plumes at the USGS OSPER Site, Osage Co., Oklahoma, in International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11-15, 2004.

Smith, S.E., and Hult, M.F., 1993, Hydrogeologic data collected from a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-496, 158 p.

Snoeyenbos-West, O.L., Nevin, K.P., Anderson, R.T., and Lovley, D.R., 2000, Enrichment of Geobacter species in response to stimulation of Fe(III) reduction in sandy aquifer sediments: Microbial Ecology, v. 39, no. 2, p. 153-167, doi:10.1007/s002480000018.

Strobel, M.L., Delin, G.N., and Munson, C.J., 1998, Spatial variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4053, 13 p.

Strobel, M.L., Strobel, C.J., and Delin, G.N., 1998, Design for a packer/vacuum slug test system for estimating hydraulic conductivity in wells with LNAPLs, casing leaks, or water tables intersecting the screens: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 18, no. 4, p. 77-80, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.1998.tb00167.x.

T

Thordsen, J.J., Kharaka, Y.K., and Ambats, G., 2002, Environmental impacts of petroleum production--2 - The fate of inorganic and organic chemicals in produced water from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma, in 9th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 22-25, 2002.

Thordsen, J.J., Kharaka, Y.K., Ambats, G., Kakouros, E., and Abbott, M.M., 2007, Geochemical data from produced water contamination investigations--Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1055, 15 p (appendix in seperate Miscorsoft Excel file).

Thordsen, J.J., Kharaka, Y.K., and Kakouros, E., 2004, Removal of contaminant salt from a depleted petroleum field by runoff--Results from OSPER "A" site, Osage County, Oklahoma, in International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11-15, 2004.

Thorn, K.A., 1987, The use of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the analysis of complex samples of environmental interest, in Franks, B.J., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Program on Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-109, p. E-13-E-17.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1999, Polar metabolites of crude oil, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 231-235.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1998, Biodegradation of crude oil into nonvolatile organic acids in a contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota: Organic Geochemistry, v. 29, no. 4, p. 909-931, doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00167-3.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1993, NMR investigation of the biodegradation of crude-oil into nonvolatile organic acids in a contaminated aquifer, in Preprints of Papers Presented at the 205th ACS National Meeting, Division of Environmental Chemistry, Denver, Colorado, March 28-April 3, 1993: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, v. 33, no. 1, p. 165-166.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1991, Sources in crude oil of nonvolatile organic acids downgradient from an oil body at Bemidji, Minnesota, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 654-658.

Thorn, K.A., and Aiken, G.R., 1989, Characterization of nonvolatile organic acids resulting from the biodegradation of crude oil by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 41-51.

Thorn, K.A., and Cox, L.G., 2015, Probing the carbonyl functionality of a petroleum resin and asphaltene through oximation and Schiff base formation in conjunction with N-15 NMR: PLoS ONE, v. 10, no. 11, e0142452, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142452.

Tuccillo, M.E., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Herman, J.S., 1999, Iron reduction in the sediments of a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: Applied Geochemistry, v. 14, no. 5, p. 655-667, doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(98)00089-4.

U

University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003, Geochemical plume evolution: Underground Tank Technology Update, v. 17, no. 5, p. 2-4.

W

Waddill, D.W., 1998, Three-dimensional modeling of solute transport with in situ bioremediation based on sequential electron acceptors: Blacksburg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 190 p.

Waddill, D.W., and Widdowson, M.A., 1997, SEAM3D--A numerical model for three-dimensional solute transport and sequential electron acceptor-based bioremediation in groundwater: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Final Technical Report, prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 336-344 p.

Wanty, R.B., and Kharaka, Y.K., 1997, USGS research on saline waters co-produced with energy resources: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-003-97.

Warren, E., and Bekins, B.A., 2015, Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.09.007.

Warren, E., Bekins, B.A., Godsy, E.M., and Smith, V., 2003, Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater: Bioremediation Journal, v. 7, no. 3-4, p. 139-149, doi:10.1080/10889860390270757.

Warren, E., Sihota, N.J., Hostettler, F.D., and Bekins, B.A., 2014, Comparison of surficial CO2 efflux to other measures of subsurface crude oil degradation: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 164, p. 275-284, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.06.006.

Warren, E.M., Bekins, B.A., and Godsy, E.M., 1999, Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis by crude oil from Bemidji, Minnesota, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 223-230.

Welty, C., and Baehr, A.L., Joss, C.J., and Dillow, J.J.A., 1991, Use of mathematical programming coupled with a transport model to optimize the design of vapor-extraction systems, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 276-279.

Welty, C., Joss, C.J., and Baehr, A.L., 1996, Optimizing the design of vapor-extraction remediation systems for removal of organic contaminants from the unsaturated zone, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 55-59.

White, D.L., 1991, Point dilution method determination of groundwater velocities at the Bemidji Research Site: University of Texas at Austin, M.S. thesis, 145 p.

Williams, R.L., Mayer, K.U., Amos, R.T., Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., and Bain, J.G., 2007, Using dissolved gas analysis to investigate the performance of an organic carbon permeable reactive barrier for the treatment of mine drainage: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 1, p. 90-108, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.09.007.

Wozney, A., 2017, Biodegradation rates of petroleum in contaminanted aquifers--A comparison of radiocarbon correction methods for determining source zone natural attenuation: Ottawa, Canada, University of Ottawa, Masters thesis.

Y

Yun, J., Ueki, T., Miletto, M., and Lovley, D.R., 2011, Monitoring the metabolic status of geobacter species in contaminated groundwater by quantifying key metabolic proteins with geobacter-specific antibodies: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 77, no. 13, p. 4597-4602, doi:10.1128/aem.00114-11.

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Zachara, J.M., Kukkadapu, R.K., Gassman, P.L., Dohnalkova, A., Fredrickson, J.K., and Anderson, T., 2004, Biogeochemical transformation of Fe minerals in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, no. 8, p. 1791-1805, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.09.022.

Zapecza, O.S., and Baehr, A.L., 1999, Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in lakes in Byram Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, 1998 and vulnerability of ground water in lakeside communities, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 405-413.

Zhang, T., Gannon, S.M., Nevin, K.P., Franks, A.E., and Lovley, D.R., 2010, Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing an electrode as the electron acceptor: Environmental Microbiology, v. 12, no. 4, p. 1011-1020, doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02145.x.

Ziegler, B.A., McGuire, J.T., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 2015, Rates of As and trace element mobilization caused by Fe-reduction in mixed BTEX-ethanol experimental plumes: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 49, no. 22, p. 13179-13189, doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02341.

Ziegler, B.A., Schreiber, M.E., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 2017, Chemical extraction results of aquifer sediments for concentrations of iron and arsenic in different redox zones at the crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Ziegler, B.A., Schreiber, M.E., and Cozzarelli, I.M., 2017, The role of alluvial aquifer sediments in attenuating a dissolved arsenic plume: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 204, p. 90-101, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2017.04.009.

Ziegler, B.A., Schreiber, M.E., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Crystal Ng, G.H., 2017, A mass balance approach to investigate arsenic cycling in a petroleum plume: Environmental Pollution, v. 231, no. Part 2, p. 1351-1361, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.110.

Ziegler, B.A., Schreiber, M.E., Cozzarelli, I.M., and Ng, C.G.-H., 2017, Arsenic and iron data (2010-2015) for petroleum plume mass balance, Bemidji Mn: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Zielinski, R.A., and Budahn, J.R., 2007, Mode of occurrence and environmental mobility of oil-field radioactive material at US Geological Survey Research Site B, Osage-Skiatook Project, Northeastern Oklahoma: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 11, p. 2,125-2,137, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.04.014 (one of 6 papers in a special issue on environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production).

Zielinski, R.A., and Budahn, J.R., 2004, Mode of occurrence and environmental mobility of oilfield NORM at USGS Research Site B, Osage Skiatook project, northeast Oklahoma, in International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11-15, 2004.

Zielinski, R.A., Cathcart, J.D., Hannah, T.L., and Bullock Jr., J.H., 2003, Determining the distribution of subsurface salt contamination using the composition of oak leaves--A case study at an oil production site, northeast Oklahoma, in 2003 10th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, Houston, Texas, November 11-14, 2003: IPEC.

Zielinski, R.A., Herkelrath, W.N., and Otton, J.K., 2007, Composition of pore water in lake sediments, research site "B", Osage County, Oklahoma--Implications for lake water quality and benthic organisms: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 11, p. 2,177-2,192, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.04.013 (one of 6 papers in a special issue on environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production).

Zielinski, R.A., Rice, C.A., and Otton, J.K., 2003, Use of soil extracts to define the extent of brine-impacted soils and bedrock at oil production site "B", Osage-Skiatook Project, northeastern Oklahoma, in Sublette, K., ed., 9th International Petroleum Environmental Conference Special Session--Fate and Transport of Brine and Hydrocarbon Releases in Soils and Water, Northeast Oklahoma, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 22-25, 2002: IPEC, p. 12 pages.

Zielinski, R.A., Rice, C.A., and Otton, J.K., 2003, Use of soil extracts to define the extent of brine-impacted soils and bedrock at the Osage-Skiatook petroleum environmental research "B" site, northeastern Oklahoma, in Kharaka, Y.K., and Otton, J.K., eds., Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production--Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4260, p. 127-135.

Zogorski, J.S., Delzer, G.C., Bender, D.A., Squillace, P.J., Lopes, T.J., Baehr, A.L., Stackelberg, P.E., Landmeyer, J.E., Boughton, C.J., Lico, M.S., Pankow, J.F., Johnson, R.L., and Thomson, N.R., 1998, MTBE--Summary of findings and research by the U.S. Geological Survey, in Annual Conference on Water Quality, American Water Works Association Meeting, Dallas, Texas, June 21-25, 1998: Denver, Colo., American Water Works Association, v. D, p. 287-309.

Zogorski, J.S., Morduchowitz, A., Baehr, A.L., Bauman, B.J., Conrad, D.L., Drew, R.T., Korte, N.E., Lapham, W.W., Pankow, J.F., and Washington, E.R., 1996, Fuel oxygenates and water quality--A summary of current understanding of sources, occurrence in natural waters, environmental behavior, fate, and significanceNational Science and Technology Council-Committe on Environment and Natural Resources, 37 p.


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