Environmental Health - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Pesticide Investigations — Herbicides and other Agricultural Chemicals — Midwest Cornbelt

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A

Adams, C.D., Randtke, S.J., Thurman, E.M., and Hulsey, R.A., 1990, Atrazine and its degradation products in soil and ground water, and the effectiveness of water-treatment processes for their removal, in University of Kansas Environmental 40th Annual Conference, Proceedings, Lawrence, Kan., February 7, 1990: p. 1-24.

Adams, C.D., and Thurman, E.M., 1991, Formation and transport of deethylatrazine in the soil and vadose zone: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 20, no. 3, p. 540-547, doi:10.2134/jeq1991.00472425002000030007x.

Aga, D.S., 1995, Analytical applications of immunoassays in environmental and agricultural chemistry--study of the fate and transport of herbicides: Lawrence, University of Kansas, Department of Chemistry, Ph.D. thesis, 220 p.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 2001, Formation and transport of the sulfonic acid metabolites of alachlor and metolachlor in soil: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 35, no. 12, p. 2455-2460, doi:10.1021/es991264s.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1997, Environmental Immunoassays--Alternative techniques for soil and water analysis, in Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Immunochemical technology for environmental applications: Washington D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 657, p. 1-20.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1995, Application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for ultratrace analysis of herbicides in water and soil by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in Kurtz, D.A., Skerritt, J.H., and Stanker, L., eds., Agrochemical Immunoanalysis-93: Arlington, Va., AOAC International, p. 317.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Coupling solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ultratrace determination of herbicides in pristine water: Analytical Chemistry, v. 65, no. 20, p. 2894-2898, doi:10.1021/ac00068a029.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., and Pomes, M.L., 1996, Measurement of concentrations of alachlor and its ethanesulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 385-392.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., and Pomes, M.L., 1994, Determination of alachlor and its sulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: Analytical Chemistry, v. 66, no. 9, p. 1495-1499, doi:10.1021/ac00081a022.

Aga, D.S., Thurman, E.M., Yockel, M.E., Zimmerman, L.R., and Williams, T.D., 1996, Identification of a new sulfonic acid metabolite of metolachlor in soil: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 2, p. 592-597, doi:10.1021/es9503600.

Aga, D.S., and Thurman, E.M., eds., 1997, Immunochemical technology for environmental applications: American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 657, 396 p.

Antweiler, R.C., Goolsby, D.A., and Taylor, H.E., 1996, Nutrients in the Mississippi River, 1987-92, in Meade, R.H., ed., Contaminants in the Mississippi River: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, p. 73-85.

B

Battaglin, W.A., 2002, Using ratios of atrazine transformation products to atrazine to determine its source in Midwestern streams, in Kenny, J., ed., Ground Water/Surface Water Interactions, AWRA Summer Specialty Conference Proceedings, Middleburg, Virginia: American Water Resources Association, TPS-02-2, p. 213-218.

Battaglin, W.A., 1993, Use of volume modelling techniques to estimate agricultural chemical mass in groundwater, Minnesota, USA, in Kovar, K., and Nachtnebel, H., eds., Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management: International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS Publication No. 211, p. 591-599.

Battaglin, W.A., 1992, Estimation of agricultural chemical mass in ground water by volume modeling techniques: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, M.E. thesis, ER-4284, 157 p.

Battaglin, W.A., and Fairchild, J., 2002, Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms: Water Science and Technology, v. 45, no. 9, p. 95-103.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., and Burkhardt, M.R., 2001, Concentration of selected sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, and imadazolinone herbicides, other pesticides, and nutrients in 71 streams, 5 reservoir outflows, and 25 wells in the midwestern United States, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4225, 123 p.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., and Peter, C.J., 2000, Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 123-133, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00536-7.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., and Peter, C.J., 1999, Occurrence of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in midwestern rivers, reservoirs, and ground water, 1998, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 215-225.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., and Peter, C.J., 1998, A reconnaissance for new, low-application rate herbicides in surface and ground water in the Midwestern United States, in Proceedings of the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) National Conference, Monitoring--Critical Foundations to Protect Our Waters, Reno, Nevada, July 7-9, 1998: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. 245-256.

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., and Peter, C.J., 1998, A reconnaissance for sulfonylurea herbicides in waters of the Midwestern USA--An example of collaboration between the public and private sectors: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-046-98, 4 p.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Herbicide concentrations in Midwest reservoirs (plus a self-study examination to earn continuing education credit): Crop Decisions, v. 42, no. 3, p. 5-8.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Are shifts in herbicide use reflected in concentration changes in midwestern rivers?: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 17, p. 2917-2925, doi:10.1021/es9900149.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1998, Regression models of herbicide concentrations in outflow from reservoirs in the midwestern USA, 1992-1993: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 34, no. 6, p. 1369-1390, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1998.tb05438.x.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1997, Statistical modeling of agricultural chemical occurrence in midwestern rivers: Journal of Hydrology, v. 196, no. 1-4, p. 1-25, doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(97)00011-5.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1996, Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA, in Kovar, K., and Nachtnebel, H., eds., Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management--Proceedings of HydroGIS'96 meeting, Vienna, Austria, April, 1996: International Association of Hydrological Sciences IAHS Publication No. 235, p. 253-260.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1996, Using GIS and regression to estimate annual herbicide concentrations in outflow from reservoirs in the midwestern USA, 1992-93, in AWRA Symposium on GIS and Water Resources, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, September 22-26, 1996: American Water Resources Association.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1996, Using GIS and regression to estimate annual herbicide concentrations in outflow from reservoirs in the midwestern USA, 1992-93, in Hallam, C.A., Salisbury, H.M., Lanfear, K.J., and Battaglin, W.A., eds., GIS and Water Resources--Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association: American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS-96-3, p. 89-98.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1995, Spatial data in Geographic Information System format on agricultural chemical use, land use, and cropping practices in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4176, 87 p.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Relations between herbicide use and annual transport of herbicides in midwestern rivers, 1991-92, in Weigmann, D.L., ed., New Directions in Pesticide Research Development, Management, and Policy--Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference, on Pesticides, Richmond, Va., November 1-3, 1993: p. 711-723.

Battaglin, W.A., Goolsby, D.A., and Coupe, R., 1993, Annual use and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River, 1991-92, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 26-40.

Battaglin, W.A., Goolsby, D.A., and Coupe, R.H., 1996, Annual use and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River, 1991-92, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 429-440.

Battaglin, W.A., Goolsby, D.A., and Mueller, D.K., 1994, Relations between use, concentration, and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River basin, in Marston, R.A., and Hasfurther, V.R., eds., Effects of Human-induced Changes on Hydrologic System--Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association summer symposium, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, June 26-29, 1994: p. 1073-1086.

Battaglin, W.A., and Hay, L.E., 1996, Effects of sampling strategies on estimates of annual mean herbicide concentrations in midwestern rivers: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 3, p. 889-896, doi:10.1021/es950351r.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001, Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1285-1300, doi:10.1002/hyp.214.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001, Isotopic and chemical composition of inorganic and organic water-quality samples from the Mississippi River Basin, 1997-98: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4095, 57 p.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Goolsby, D.A., and Boyer, L.L., 1997, Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios δ15N and δ18O can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-230, 18 p.

Battaglin, W.A., Thurman, E.M., Kalkhoff, S.J., and Porter, S.D., 2003, Herbicides and transformation products in surface waters of the midwestern United States: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 39, no. 4, p. 743-756, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb04402.x.

Boyd, R.A., 1999, Herbicides and herbicide degradates in shallow ground water and the Cedar River near a municipal well field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 289-300.

Bratkovich, A., Dinnel, S.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Variability and prediction of freshwater and nitrate fluxes for the Louisiana-Texas shelf--Mississippi and Atchafalaya source functions: Estuaries, v. 17, no. 4, p. 766-778, doi:10.2307/1352746.

Burkart, M., Kolpin, D.W., Jaquis, R., and Cole, K., 2001, Soil characteristics and agrichemicals in groundwater of the midwestern United States: Water Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 5, p. 251-260.

Burkart, M.R., 1991, Hydrogeologic research on agrichemicals in the Midcontinental United States, in Water Quality Workshop for Eastern Europe, Poznan, Poland, Proceedings, September 23-26, 1991: p. 22.

Burkart, M.R., 1990, Interagency research and technical integration, in Information exchange on models and data needs relating to the impact of agricultural practices on water quality--Workshop Proceedings, Reston, Virginia, February 5-8, 1990: U.S. Geological Survey, Office Water Data Coordination, p. 11-12.

Burkart, M.R., and Kolpin, D.W., 1993, Regional assessment of factors related to herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinent, in Agricultural research to protect water quality--Proceedings of the Conference, Minneapolis, Minn., February 21-24, 1993: Ankeny, Iowa, Soil and Water Conservation Society, p. 390-392.

Burkart, M.R., Kolpin, D.W., and James, D.E., 1999, Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the midwest U.S.: Water Science and Technology, v. 39, no. 3, p. 103-112, doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00042-6.

Burkart, M.R., Kolpin, D.W., Jaquis, R.J., and Cole, K.J., 1999, Agrichemicals in ground water of the Midwestern USA--Relations to soil characteristics: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 28, no. 6, p. 1908-1915, doi:10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800060030x.

Burkart, M.R., and Ragone, S.A., 1989, Planned studies of herbicides in ground and surface water in the Midcontinental United States, in Papers from International Symposium on Integrated Approaches to Water Pollution Problems, Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-23, 1989: International Water Resources Association, v. 3, p. 475-477.

Burkart, M.R., Ragone, S.E., Thurman, E.M., and Perry, C.A., 1989, Planned studies of herbicides in ground and surface water in the Midcontinental United States, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 445-452.

Buxton, H., and Capelli, K., 2010, New report warns of expanding threat of hypoxia in U.S. coastal waters: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 09/03/2010.

Buxton, H., and LaVista, J., 2007, Report on streamflow and nutrient delivery from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 03/30/2007.

C

CENR, 2000, Integrated assessment of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C., 58 p.

Capel, P.D., 1991, Wet atmospheric deposition of herbicides in Minnesota, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investgations Report 91-4034, p. 334-337.

Capel, P.D., 1990, A bibliography of atrazine and its simple degradation products in the environment: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-613, 4 diskettes, 5 p.

Clark, G.M., Broshears, R.E., Hooper, R.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 2002, Evaluating the influence of source basins on downstream water quality in the Mississippi River: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 38, no. 3, p. 803-818, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2002.tb00998.x.

Clark, G.M., and Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Occurrence and load of selected herbicides and metabolites in the lower Mississippi River: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 101-113, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00534-3.

Clark, G.M., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Discharge of herbicides from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico, 1991-97: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-163-98, 4 p.

Clark, G.M., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Occurrence and transport of acetochlor in streams of the Mississippi River Basin: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 28, no. 6, p. 1787-1795, doi:10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800060014x.

Clark, G.M., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Trends in annual herbicide loads from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 237-246.

Clark, G.M., Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1999, Seasonal and annual load of herbicides from the Mississippi River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 7, p. 981-986, doi:10.1021/es980962u.

Coupe, R.H., and Goolsby, D.A., 1992, Herbicides in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, April-June 1991, in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting, Mississippi River Research Consortium, LaCrosse, Wisconsin, April 30-May 1, 1992: LaCrosse, Wisconsin, Mississippi River Research Consortium, Inc., p. 18-19.

Coupe, R.H., Goolsby, D.A., Iverson, J.L., Zaugg, S.D., and Markovchick, D.J., 1995, Pesticide, nutrient, streamflow and physical property data for the Mississippi River and major tributaries, April 1991-September 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-657, 116 p.

Coupe, R.H., Henebry, M.S., and Branham, M.R., 1993, Assessing the effect of pesticides in agricultural runoff on aquatic life in the Sangamon River near Monticello, Illinois: Water, Science, and Technology, v. 28, no. 3-5, p. 569-573.

Coupe, R.H., and Johnson, G.P., 1991, Triazine herbicides in selected streams in Illinois during storm events, spring 1990, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 343-346.

Coupe, R.H., Manning, M.A., Foreman, W.T., Goolsby, D.A., and Majewski, M.S., 1999, Occurrence of pesticides in rain and air in urban and agricultural areas of Mississippi, April-September 1995, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 301-312.

Coupe, R.H., Manning, M.A., Foreman, W.T., Goolsby, D.A., and Majewski, M.S., 1998, Occurrence of pesticides in air and rain in urban and agricultural areas of Mississippi, April-September 1995, in Daniel, J., ed., Proceedings of the 28th Mississippi Water Resources Conference, Raymond, Mississippi, April 7-8, 1998: Starkville, Mississippi, Mississippi Water Resources Institue, p. 106-116.

Coupe, R.H., and Thurman, E.M., 2001, Pesticide concentrations in the Mississippi River--The importance of degradates, in Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association Annual Spring Specialty Conference, April 30-May 2, 2001: p. 147-152.

Cromwell, A.E., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Atrazine transport and degradation in a pristine watershed--The fate of atrazine deposited by precipitation, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 423-428.

D

Dankwardt, A., Thurman, E.M., and Hock, B., 1997, Terbuthylazine and deethylterbuthylazine in rain and surface water--Determination by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, v. 1, p. 5-10.

Dankwardt, A., Wust, S., Elling, W., Thurman, E.M., and Hock, B., 1994, Determination of atrazine in rainfall and surface water in Germany by enzyme immunoassay: Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 1, no. 4, p. 196-204.

Dombrowski, T.R., Thurman, E.M., and Mohrman, G.B., 1996, A first application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening cyclodiene insecticides in ground water, in Van Emon, J.M., Gerlach, C.L., and Johnson, J.C., eds., Environmental immunochemical methods: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 646, p. 170-182.

Dombrowski, T.R., Wilson, G.S., and Thurman, E.M., 1998, Investigation of anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle-loaded membranes for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water: Analytical Chemistry, v. 70, no. 9, p. 1969-1978, doi:10.1021/ac971081t.

Druliner, A.D., Goolsby, D.A., and Meyer, M., 1996, Temporal distributions of herbicide and nitrite-nitrate concentrations and loads in the West Fork of the Big Blue River, Nebraska, 1990 and 1991-92, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 479-485.

Druliner, A.D., and McGrath, T.S., 1996, Predicting nitrate-nitrogen and atrazine contamination in the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 515-524.

E

Eckhardt, D.A., Wagenet, R.J., Thurman, E.M., and Barnes, P.L., 1996, Fate of alachlor, atrazine, and bromide in a corn plot near Topeka, Kansas, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 535-541.

Eckhardt, D.A.V., and Barnes, P.L., 1991, Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity of a silt-loam soil near Topeka, Kansas, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 210-213.

F

Fairchild, J.F., Sappington, L.C., and Ruessler, D.S., 1999, An ecological risk assessment of the potential for herbicide impacts on primary productivity of the Lower Missouri River, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 323-330.

Fallon, J.D., 1994, Determining the 3-dimensional distribution, transport, and relative age of atrazine and selected metabolites in Perry Lake, Kansas: Lawrence, University of Kansas, Department of Civil Engineering, M.S. thesis, 176 p.

Fallon, J.D., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Determining the relative age, transport, and three-dimensional distribution of atrazine in a reservoir using immunoassay, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 499-504.

Fallon, J.D., Tierney, D.P., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Movement of atrazine and deethylatrazine through a midwestern reservoir: Journal of the American Water Works Association, v. 94, no. 11, p. 54-66.

Ferrer, I., Barcelo, D., and Thurman, E.M., 2000, First LC/MS determination of cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine in groundwater samples: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 34, no. 4, p. 714-718, doi:10.1021/es990462g.

Ferrer, I., Barcelo, D., and Thurman, E.M., 1999, Double-disk solid-phase extraction--Simultaneous cleanup and trace enrichment of herbicides and metabolites from environmental samples: Analytical Chemistry, v. 71, no. 5, p. 1009-1015, doi:10.1021/ac980975q.

Ferrer, I., Thurman, E.M., and Barcelo, D., 1997, Identification of ionic chloroacetanilide-herbicide metabolites in surface water and groundwater by HPLC/MS using negative ion spray: Analytical Chemistry, v. 69, no. 22, p. 4547-4553, doi:10.1021/ac9704671.

Focazio, M.J., Phillips, S.W., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2013, Contaminants affect fish and wildlife in the Chesapeake Bay: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Foreman, W.T., Majewski, M.S., Goolsby, D.A., Wiebe, F.W., and Coupe, R.H., 2000, Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, part II -- air: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 213-226, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00544-6.

Foreman, W.T., Majewski, M.S., Goolsby, D.A., Wiebe, F.W., and Coupe, R.H., 1999, Pesticides in the atmosphere of the Mississippi River Valley, Part II--Air, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 263-274.

Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., Gates, P.M., Werner, S.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 2000, Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 135-146, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00537-9.

Furlong, E.T., Burkhardt, M.R., Gates, P.M., Werner, S.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 1999, Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 275-288.

G

Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Flow of nitrogen into Mississippi Basin believed to cause Gulf hypoxia: Earth in Space, v. 13, no. 3, p. 6-10.

Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Mississippi basin nitrogen flux believed to cause Gulf hypoxia: Eos, v. 81, no. 29, 07/18/2000, p. 321, 326-327.

Goolsby, D.A., 1995, Dissolved herbicides, in Moody, J.A., ed., Data report on Mississippi--Upriver profiles, chemical data for water quality samples collected during four upriver transects of the Mississippi River between New Orleans, Louisiana, and St. Paul, Minnesota, May 1990-April 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-523, p. 297.

Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Flux of herbicides and nitrate from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico during the 1993 flood, in Dowgiallo, M.J., ed., Coastal oceanographic effects of summer 1993 Mississippi River flooding--Special NOAA report: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, p. 32-35.

Goolsby, D.A., 1991, Agricultural chemicals in surface-water resources of the Midcontinental United States, in American Water Resources Association, NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment Program) session, Proceedings, New Orleans, September, 1991: p. 373-374.

Goolsby, D.A., 1991, Atrazine in the Midwestern United States, in U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1990, p. 55-57.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 2001, Long-term changes in concentrations and flux of nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, USA: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1209-1226, doi:10.1002/hyp.210.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 2000, Nitrogen in the Mississippi Basin--Estimating sources and predicting flux to the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 135-00, 6 p.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1995, Occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams of the Midwestern United States, in Leng, M.L., ed., Agrochemical environmental fate--State of the art: Boca Raton, Fla., Lewis Publishers, p. 159-173.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1994, Occurrence and transport of pesticides in the Mississippi River basin, in Proceedings of WATERSHED93--A National Conference on River Basin Planning, Alexandria, Va., March 24, 1993: p. 827.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1993, Occurrence, distribution, and transport of agricultural chemicals in surface waters of the Midwestern United States, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 1-25.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 2001, Nitrogen input to the Gulf of Mexico: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 30, no. 2, p. 329-336, doi:10.2134/jeq2001.302329x.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 2000, Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 75-86, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00532-X.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 1999, Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 203-213.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Fallon, J.D., Aga, D.S., Kolpin, D.W., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Persistence of herbicides in selected reservoirs in the midwestern United States--Some preliminary results: Iowa Groundwater Quarterly, v. 7, no. 2, p. 11-16 (reprinted from U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418).

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Fallon, J.D., Aga, D.S., Kolpin, D.W., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Persistence of herbicides in selected reservoirs in the Midwestern United States--Some preliminary results, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 51-63.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Fallon, J.D., Aga, D.S., Koplin, D.W., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Persistence of herbicides in selected reservoirs in the Midwestern United States--Some preliminary results, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 487-497.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Hooper, R.P., 1997, Sources and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in From the Corn Belt to the Gulf--Agriculture and Hypoxia in the Mississippi River Watershed, Proceedings, St. Louis, Mo., July 14-15, 1997: American Farm Bureau Federation, p. 6.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Lawrence, G.B., Artz, R.S., Aulenbach, B.T., Hooper, R.P., Keeney, D.R., and Stensland, G.J., 1999, Flux and sources of nutrients in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin--Topic 3, Report for the integrated assessment on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 17, 129 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1994, Occurrence and transport of herbicides and nitrate in the Mississippi River during the 1993 flood--Proceedings of American Water Resources Association meeting, in, Nashville, Tenn., April 17-20, 1994: p. 473-477.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Occurrence and transport of agricultural chemicals in the Mississippi River basin, July through August 1993--Floods in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1120-C, 22 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 1994, Plan of study to determine the effect of changes in herbicide use on herbicide concentrations in midwestern streams, 1989-94: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-347, 14 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Coupe, R.H., and Markovchick, D.J., 1991, Distribution of selected herbicides and nitrate in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, April through June 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4163, 35 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Hooper, R.P., and Battaglin, W.A., 1998, Sources and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in Proceedings "From the Corn Belt to the Gulf...Agriculture and Hypoxia in the Mississippi River Watershed," American Farm Bureau Federation Workshop, St Louis, Missouri, July 14-15, 1997: St Louis, Missouri, American Farm Bureau Federation, p. 59-64 (document has no page numbers).

Goolsby, D.A., and Pereira, W.E., 1996, Pesticides in the Mississippi River, in Meade, R.H., ed., Contaminants in the Mississippi River: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, p. 86-101.

Goolsby, D.A., Scribner, E.A., Thurman, E.M., Meyer, M.T., and Pomes, M.L., 1995, Data on selected herbicides and two triazine metabolites in precipitation in the midwestern and northeastern United States, 1990-91: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-469, 341 p.

Goolsby, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1990, Herbicides in rivers and streams of the Upper Midwestern United States, in The Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Bettendorf, Iowa, March 13-15, 1990: p. 99-106.

Goolsby, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1990, Pesticides in streams of the Upper Midwestern United States, in Proceedings of the 7th Annual Water and the Future of Kansas Conference, Manhattan, Kansas, March 7-8, 1990: p. 27-28.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Clark, M.L., and Pomes, M.L., 1991, Immunoassay as a screening tool for triazine herbicides in streams--comparison with gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods, in Vanderlaan, M., Stanker, L.H., Watkins, B.E., and Roberts, D.E., eds., Immunoassays for Trace Chemical Analysis--Monitoring toxic chemicals in humans, food, and the environment: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 451, p. 86-99.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., and Kolpin, D.W., 1991, Geographic and temporal distribution of herbicides in surface waters of the upper midwestern United States, 1989-90, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 183-188.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., and Kolpin, D.W., 1991, Herbicides in streams--Midwestern United States, in ASE Irrigation and Drainange Engineering Conference, Proceedings, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 22-26, 1991: p. 17-23.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Kolpin, D.W., and Battaglin, W.A., 1995, Occurrence of herbicides and metabolites in surface water, ground water and rainwater, in the midwestern United States--Proceedings of 1995 AWWA Conference, in, Anaheim, CA, June 18-22, 1995: p. 583-591.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Kolpin, D.W., and Meyer, M.T., 1995, Herbicides and metabolites in surface water, rainwater, and ground water in the midwestern United States--Proceedings of 209th ACS National Meeting, in, Anaheim, California, April 2-7, 1995: p. 278-281.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Pomes, M.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 1994, Temporal and geographic distribution of herbicides in precipitation in the midwest and northeast United States, 1990-91--Proceedings of the Fourth National Pesticide Conference, in, Richmond, Va., November 1-3, 1993: p. 697-710.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Pomes, M.L., Meyer, M., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, Occurrence, deposition, and long range transport of herbicides in precipitation in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 411-421.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Pomes, M.L., Meyer, M., and Battaglin, W.A., 1993, Occurrence, deposition, and long range transport of herbicides in precipitation in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 75-89.

Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Pomes, M.L., Meyer, M.T., and Battaglin, W.A., 1997, Herbicides and their metabolites in rainfall--Origin, transport, and deposition patterns across the midwestern and northeastern United States, 1990-1991: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 5, p. 1325-1333, doi:10.1021/es960847o.

Graham, W.H., Graham, D.W., Denoyelles Jr., F., Smith, V.H., Larive, C.K., and Thurman, E.M., 1999, Metolachlor and alachlor breakdown product formation patterns in aquatic field mesocosms: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 24, p. 4471-4476, doi:10.1021/es990686z.

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Harvey, C.A., Kolpin, D.W., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, Use of geographic information systems and scanning technology to create high-resolution historical land-use data sets: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4100, 41 p.

Hay, L.E., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, A visual/interactive method for examining the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) data--Proceedings of Watershed'96, in, Baltimore, Md., June 8-12, 1996: p. 317-319.

Hostetler, K.A., and Thurman, E.M., 2000, Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 147-155, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00538-0.

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Johnson, G.P., and Coupe, R.H., 1996, Transport and concentrations of selected herbicides and nitrate in the Sangamon River, Illinois, April 1991 - March 1992, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 471-478.

Jorgenson, P., 1999, Nutrients aren't always good--USGS scientists determine sources of nutrients in Mississippi River Basin: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 01/21/1999.

Juracek, K.E., and Thurman, E.M., 1997, Assessing aquifer contamination risk using immunoassay--Tracer analysis of atrazine in unsaturated zone sediment: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 26, no. 4, p. 1080-1089, doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600040020x.

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Kalkhoff, S.J., Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., Ferrer, I., and Barcelo, D., 1998, Degradation of chloroacetanilide herbicides--The prevalence of sulfonic and oxanilic acid metabolites in Iowa ground and surface waters: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 32, no. 11, p. 1738-1740, doi:10.1021/es971138t.

Kalkhoff, S.J., Lee, K.E., Porter, S.D., Terrio, P.J., and Thurman, E.M., 2003, Herbicides and herbicide degradation products in upper midwest agricultural streams during August base-flow conditions: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 32, no. 3, p. 1025-1035, doi:10.2134/jeq2003.1025.

Kendall, C., Battaglin, W.A., Cabana, G., Chang, C.C., Silva, S.R., Porter, S.D., Goolsby, D.A., Campbell, D.H., Hooper, R.P., and Schmitt, C.J., 1999, Isotopic tracing of nitrogen sources and cycling in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 339-343.

Kolpin, D.W., 2000, Importance of the Mississippi River Basin for investigating agricultural--chemical contamination of the hydrologic cycle: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 71-72, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00530-6.

Kolpin, D.W., 1997, Agricultural chemicals in groundwater of the midwestern United States--Relations to land use: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 26, no. 4, p. 1025-1037, doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600040014x.

Kolpin, D.W., 1995, Agricultural chemicals in ground water of the Midwest--Proceedings of the 12th Annual Water and the Future of Kansas Conference, in, Manhattan, Kansas, February 28-March 1, 1995: p. 19-21.

Kolpin, D.W., and Burkart, M.R., 1991, Work plan for regional reconnaissance for selected herbicides and nitrate in ground water of the Midcontinent United States, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-59, 18 p.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Nitrate in groundwater of the Midwestern United States--A regional investigation on relations to land use and soil properties: International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Publication no. 257, p. 111-116.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1994, Herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the Mid-Continent United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2413, 34 p.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Hydrogeologic, water-quality and land-use data for the reconnaissance of herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-114, 61 p.

Kolpin, D.W., Fischer, E.E., and Schnoebelen, D.J., 2000, Water-quantity and water-quality aspects of a 500-year flood--Nishnabotna River, southwest Iowa, June 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4025, 6 p.

Kolpin, D.W., and Goolsby, D.A., 1995, A regional monitoring network to investigate the occurrence and distribution of agricultural chemicals in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental United States, in Proceedings of Conference on Groundwater Quality--Remediation and Protection: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication No. 225, p. 13-20.

Kolpin, D.W., Goolsby, D.A., Aga, D.S., Iverson, J.L., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Pesticides in near-surface aquifers--Results of the Midcontinental United States ground-water reconnaissance, 1991-92, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 505-513.

Kolpin, D.W., Goolsby, D.A., Aga, D.S., Iverson, J.L., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Pesticides in near-surface aquifers--Results of the Midcontinental United States ground-water reconnaissance, 1991-92, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 64-74.

Kolpin, D.W., Goolsby, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1995, Pesticides in near-surface aquifers--An assessment using highly sensitive analytical methods and tritium: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 24, no. 6, p. 1125-1132, doi:10.2134/jeq1995.00472425002400060011x.

Kolpin, D.W., Hallberg, G., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., and Libra, R., 1997, Agricultural chemicals in Iowa's ground water, 1982-95 -- What are the trends: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-116-97, 4 p.

Kolpin, D.W., and Kalkhoff, S.J., 1993, Atrazine degradation in a small stream in Iowa: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 27, no. 1, p. 134-139, doi:10.1021/es00038a014.

Kolpin, D.W., Kalkhoff, S.J., Goolsby, D.A., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1997, Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's ground water, 1995: Ground Water, v. 35, no. 4, p. 679-688, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1997.tb00134.x.

Kolpin, D.W., Nations, B.K., Goolsby, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Acetochlor in the hydrologic system in the midwestern United States, 1994: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1459-1464, doi:10.1021/es9503241.

Kolpin, D.W., Schnoebelen, D.J., and Thurman, E.M., 2004, Degradates provide insight to spatial and temporal trends of herbicides in ground water: Ground Water, v. 42, no. 4, p. 601-608, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2004.tb02628.x.

Kolpin, D.W., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., Hallberg, G.R., and Libra, R.D., 1997, Temporal trends of selected agricultural chemicals in Iowa's groundwater, 1982-1995--Are things getting better?: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 26, no. 4, p. 1007-1017, doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600040012x.

Kolpin, D.W., Stamer, J.K., Goolsby, D.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1998, Herbicides in ground water of the Midwest--A regional study of shallow aquifers, 1991-94: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-076-98, 4 p.

Kolpin, D.W., and Thurman, E.M., 1995, Post-flood occurrence of selected agricultural chemicals and volatile organic compounds in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers in the Mississippi River Basin, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1120G, 20 p.

Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Goolsby, D.A., 1996, Occurrence of selected pesticides and their metabolites in near-surface aquifers of the midwestern United States: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 1, p. 335-340, doi:10.1021/es950341q.

Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Linhart, S.M., 2001, Occurrence of cyanazine compounds in groundwater--Degradates more prevalent than the parent compound: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 35, no. 6, p. 1217-1222, doi:10.1021/es001520x.

Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Linhart, S.M., 2000, Finding minimal herbicide concentrations in ground water? Try looking for their degradates: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 115-122, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00535-5.

Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Linhart, S.M., 1999, Finding minimal herbicide concentrations in ground water? Try looking for the degradates, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 247-254.

Kolpin, D.W., Thurman, E.M., and Linhart, S.M., 1998, The environmental occurrence of herbicides--The importance of degradates in ground water: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 35, no. 3, p. 385-390, doi:10.1007/s002449900392.

Kolpin, D.W., Zichelle, K.E., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Water-quality data for pesticides, nutrients, and volatile organic compounds in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental United States, 1992-1994: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-435, 47 p.

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Larson, S.J., Capel, P.D., Goolsby, D.A., Zaugg, S.D., and Sandstrom, M.W., 1995, Relations between pesticide use and riverine flux in the Mississippi River basin: Chemosphere, v. 31, no. 5, p. 3305-3321, doi:10.1016/0045-6535(95)00176-9.

Lawrence, G.B., Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1999, Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 331-337.

Lawrence, G.B., Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Stensland, G.J., 2000, Atmospheric nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin--emissions, deposition and transport: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 87-99, doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00533-1.

Lee, E.A., Kish, J.L., Zimmerman, L.R., and Thurman, E.M., 2001, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Update and additions to the determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-10, 17 p.

Lee, E.A., and Strahan, A.P., 2003, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-173, 17 p.

Lee, E.A., Strahan, A.P., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group - Determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate in water using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-454, 13 p.

Lee, E.A., Strahan, A.P., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-436, 26 p.

Lee, E.A., Zimmerman, L.R., Bhullar, B.S., and Thurman, E.M., 2002, Linker-assisted immunoassay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of glyphosate: Analytical Chemistry, v. 74, no. 19, p. 4937-4943, doi:10.1021/ac020208y.

Lee, K.E., 1995, Atrazine and alachlor degradation in wetlands--The effect of hydrophyte community structure: Lawrence, University of Kansas, Department of Biological Sciences, Masters thesis, 146 p.

Lerch, R.N., Blanchard, P.E., and Thurman, E.M., 1998, Contribution of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products to the total atrazine load in midwestern streams: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 32, no. 1, p. 40-48, doi:10.1021/es970447g.

Lerch, R.N., Ferrer, I., Thurman, E.M., and Zablotowicz, R.M., 2003, Identification of trifluralin metabolites in soil using ion-trap LC/MS/MS, in Ferrer, I., and Thurman, E.M., eds., Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, MS/MS and Time-of-Flight MS--Analysis of Emerging Contaminants: American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 850, p. 291-310.

Lerch, R.N., Thurman, E.M., and Blanchard, P.E., 1999, Hydroxyatrazine in soils and sediments: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 18, no. 10, p. 2161-2168, doi:10.1897/1551-5028(1999)018<2161:HISAS>2.3.CO;2.

Lerch, R.N., Thurman, E.M., and Kruger, E.L., 1997, Mixed-mode sorption of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products to soil--A mechanism for bound residue: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 5, p. 1539-1546, doi:10.1021/es960811w.

Lin, C.H., Lerch, R.N., Thurman, E.M., Garrett, H.E., and George, M.F., 2002, Determination of isoxaflutole (balance) and its metabolites in water using solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet or mass spectrometry: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 50, no. 21, p. 5816-5824, doi:10.1021/jf025622d.

Liu, S., Lu, J., Kolpin, D.W., and Meeker, W.Q., 1997, Analysis of environmental data with censored observations: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 12, p. 3358-3362, doi:10.1021/es960695x.

Liu, S., Yen, S., and Kolpin, D.W., 1996, Atrazine concentrations in near-surface aquifers--A censored regression approach: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 25, no. 5, p. 992-999, doi:10.2134/jeq1996.00472425002500050010x.

Liu, S., Yen, S., and Kolpin, D.W., 1996, Pesticides in groundwater--Do atrazine metabolites matter?: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 32, no. 4, p. 845-853, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1996.tb03481.x.

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Zimmerman, L.R., Hostetler, K.A., and Thurman, E.M., 2000, Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-182, 30 p.

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Zimmerman, L.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1999, Method of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group--Determination of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-634, 21 p.


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There are 265 publications in this section of the bibliography. The above list is sorted by author. The Toxics Bibliographic Data Base was last updated on 9/13/18.

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