Environmental Health - Toxic Substances Hydrology Program

Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Sedimentary Rock — Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Research Site, West Trenton, NJ

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Books and Book Chapters

Morin, R.H., Senior, L.A., and Decker, E.R., 1999, Hydrogeologic structure of the Newark Basin, Pennsylvania, from borehole geophysical logs, in Amadei, B., Kranz, R.L., Scott, G.A., and Smeallie, P.H., eds., Rock Mechanics for Industry--Proceedings of the 37th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, June 6-9, 1999: Rotterdam, Netherlands, A.A. Balkema, v. 2, p. 941-948.

National Research Council, 2013, Alternatives for Managing the Nation's Complex Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press, 320 p., ISBN:9780309278744.

Conference Proceedings Papers

De Flaun, M.F., Drew, S., Dale, J., Lacombe, P., and Schauble, P., 2006, Application of bioaugmentation for TCE DNAPL in fractured bedrock, in Sass, B.M., ed., Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, California, May 22-25, 2006: Columbus, Ohio, Battelle Press, (CD ROM).

Imbrigiotta, T.E., Ehlke, T.A., and Lacombe, P.J., 2002, Comparison of dialysis membrane diffusion samplers and two purging methods in bedrock wells, in Gavaskar, A.R., and Chen, A.S.C., eds., Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, Calif., May 20-23, 2002: Columbus, Ohio, Battelle Press (CD), (Contact The Conference Group Inc. for information on the availability of the proceedings.).

Murdoch, L.C., Hisz, D.B., Ebenhack, J.F., Fowler, D.E., Tiedeman, C.R., and Germanovich, L.N., 2009, Analysis of hydromechanical well tests in fractured sedimentary rock at the NAWC site, New Jersey, in Proceedings of the 43rd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 4th U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Asheville, N.C., June 28th – July 1, 2009: Alexandria, Va., American Rock Mechanics Association.

Wemp, A.M., Kueper, B.H., and Falta, R.W., 2011, Simulating remediation of trichloroethylene in fractured bedrock by thermal conductive heating using TMVOC, in GeoHydro2011--Water and Earth--The Junction of Quaternary Geoscience and Hydrogeology, Proceedings, Quebec City, Canada, August 28-31, 2011: Canadian Quaternary Association and Canadian Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, p. 8.

Williams, J.H., Lacombe, P.J., Johnson, C.D., and Paillet, F.L., 2007, Cross-borehole flow tests and insights into hydraulic connections in fractured mudstone and sandstone, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 2007), Denver, Colorado, April 1-5, 2007: Denver, Colo., Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, p. 1,140-1,152 (CD-ROM).

Fact Sheets

Goode, D.J., Tiedeman, C.R., Lacombe, P.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Shapiro, A.M., and Chapelle, F.H., 2007, Contamination in fractured-rock aquifers--Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3074, 2 p.

Shapiro, A.M., 2002, Fractured-rock aquifers--Understanding an increasingly important source of water: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 112-02, 2 p.

Journal Articles

Bradley, P.M., and Chapelle, F.H., 2011, Microbial mineralization of dichloroethene and vinyl chloride under hypoxic conditions: Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation, v. 31, no. 4, p. 39-49, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2011.01339.x.

Bradley, P.M., Journey, C.A., Kirshtein, J.D., Voytek, M.A., Lacombe, P.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Chapelle, F.H., Tiedeman, C.J., and Goode, D.J., 2012, Enhanced dichloroethene biodegradation in fractured rock under biostimulated and bioaugmented conditions: Remediation, v. 22, no. 2, p. 21-32, doi:10.1002/rem.21308.

Bradley, P.M., Lacombe, P.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Chapelle, F.H., and Goode, D.J., 2009, Flowpath independent monitoring of reductive dechlorination potential in a fractured rock aquifer: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 29, no. 4, p. 46-55, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2009.01255.x.

Chapelle, F.H., and Bradley, P.M., 2007, Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water: Ground Water, v. 45, no. 3, p. 272-280, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2007.00284.x.

Chapelle, F.H., Bradley, P.M., Goode, D.J., Tiedeman, C., Lacombe, P.J., Kaiser, K., and Benner, R., 2009, Biochemical indicators for the bioavailability of organic carbon in ground water: Ground Water, v. 47, no. 1, p. 108-121, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2008.00493.x.

Chapelle, F.H., Lacombe, P.J., and Bradley, P.M., 2012, Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured rock aquifer: Remediation, v. 22, no. 2, p. 7-20, doi:10.1002/rem.21307.

Day-Lewis, F.D., Johnson, C.D., Slater, L.D., Robinson, J.L., Williams, J.H., Boyden, C.L., Werkema, D., and Lane, J.W., 2016, A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool: Groundwater - Technology Spotlight, v. 54, no. 3, p. 315-316, doi:10.1111/gwat.12397 (More information on the FRGT-MST tool).

Day-Lewis, F.D., Slater, L.D., Robinson, J., Johnson, C.D., Terry, N., and Werkema, D., 2017, An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites: Journal of Environmental Management, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.033 (In Press, Corrected Proof).

Ellefsen, K.J., 2009, A comparison of phase inversion and traveltime tomography for processing near-surface refraction traveltimes: Geophysics, v. 74, no. 6, p. WCB11-WCB24, doi:10.1190/1.3196857.

Ellefsen, K.J., Burton, W.C., and Lacombe, P.J., 2012, Integrated characterization of the geologic framework of a contaminated site in West Trenton, New Jersey: Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 79, p. 71-81, doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2011.12.008.

Gebrekristos, R.A., Shapiro, A.M., and Usher, B.H., 2008, In situ estimation of the effective chemical diffusion coefficient of a rock matrix in a fractured aquifer: Hydrogeology Journal, v. 16, no. 4, p. 629-639, doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0255-0.

Goode, D.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., and Lacombe, P.J., 2014, High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone--Depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 171, p. 1-11, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.10.005.

Huang, Q., Dong, H., Towne, R.M., Fischer, T.B., and Schaefer, C.E., 2014, Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 159, p. 36-46, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.01.010.

Ivanov, J., Miller, R.D., Lacombe, P., Johnson, C.D., and Lane, J.W., 2006, Delineating a shallow fault zone and dipping bedrock strata using multichannal analysis of surface waves with a land streamer: Geophysics, v. 71, no. 5, p. A39-A42, doi:10.1190/1.2227521.

Keller, C., 2016, A new rapid method for measuring the vertical head profile: Groundwater, doi:10.1111/gwat.12455 (Advanced Web release).

Lacombe, P.J., and Burton, W.C., 2010, Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 30, no. 2, p. 35-45, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2010.01275.x.

Mao, X., Oremland, R.S., Liu, T., Gushgari, S., Landers, A.A., Baesman, S.M., and Alvarez-Cohen, L., 2017, Acetylene fuels TCE reductive dechlorination by defined Dehalococcoides/Pelobacter consortia: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 51, no. 4, p. 2366-2372, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05770.

Miller, L.G., Baesman, S.M., Kirshtein, J., Voytek, M.A., and Oremland, R.S., 2013, A biogeochemical and genetic survey of acetylene fermentation by environmental samples and bacterial isolates: Geomicrobiology Journal, v. 30, no. 6, p. 501-516, doi:10.1080/01490451.2012.732662.

Miller, L.G., Baesman, S.M., and Oremland, R.S., 2015, Stable carbon isotope fractionation during bacterial acetylene fermentation--Potential for life detection in hydrocarbon-rich volatiles of icy planet(oid)s: Astrobiology, v. 15, no. 11, p. 977-986, doi:10.1089/ast.2015.1355.

Révész, K.M., Sherwood Lollar, B., Kirshtein, J.D., Tiedeman, C.R., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Goode, D.J., Shapiro, A.M., Voytek, M.A., Lacombe, P.J., and Busenberg, E., 2014, Integration of stable carbon isotope, microbial community, dissolved hydrogen gas, and 2HH2O tracer data to assess bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethene degradation in fractured rocks: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 156, p. 62-77, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.10.004.

Robinson, J., Johnson, T., and Slater, L., 2013, Evaluation of known-boundary and resistivity constraints for improving cross-borehole DC electrical resistivity imaging of discrete fractures: Geophysics, v. 78, no. 3, p. D115-D127, doi:10.1190/geo2012-0333.1.

Robinson, J., Slater, L., Johnson, T., Shapiro, A., Tiedeman, C., Ntarlagiannis, D., Johnson, C., Day-Lewis, F., Lacombe, P., Imbrigiotta, T., and Lane, J., 2016, Imaging pathways in fractured rock using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Groundwater, v. 54, no. 2, p. 186-201, doi:10.1111/gwat.12356.

Rodríguez, D.J., and Kueper, B.H., 2013, Specification of matrix cleanup goals in fractured porous media: Ground Water, v. 51, no. 1, p. 58-65, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00918.x.

Schaefer, C.E., Towne, R.M., Lazouskaya, V., Bishop, M.E., and Dong, H., 2012, Diffusive flux and pore anisotropy in sedimentary rocks: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 131, no. 1-4, p. 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2012.01.005.

Schaefer, C.E., Towne, R.M., Lippincott, D.R., Lacombe, P.J., Bishop, M.E., and Dong, H., 2015, Abiotic dechlorination in rock matrices impacted by long-term exposure to TCE: Chemosphere, v. 119, p. 744-749, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.005.

Schaefer, C.E., Towne, R.M., Lippincott, D.R., Lazouskaya, V., Fischer, T.B., Bishop, M.E., and Dong, H., 2013, Coupled diffusion and abiotic reaction of trichlorethene in minimally disturbed rock matrices: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 9, p. 4291-4298, doi:10.1021/es400457s.

Shapiro, A., Ladderud, J., and Yager, R., 2015, Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured-rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions: Hydrogeology Journal, p. 1-21, doi:10.1007/s10040-015-1285-7.

Shapiro, A.M., and Brenneis, R.J., 2018, Variability of organic carbon content and the retention and release of trichloroethene in the rock matrix of a mudstone aquifer: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 217, p. 32-42, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2018.09.001.

Shapiro, A.M., Evans, C.E., and Hayes, E.C., 2017, Porosity and pore size distribution in a sedimentary rock--Implications for the distribution of chlorinated solvents: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 203, p. 70-84, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2017.06.006.

Shapiro, A.M., Goode, D.J., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Lorah, M.M., and Tiedeman, C.R., 2019, The complex spatial distribution of trichloroethene and the probability of NAPL occurrence in the rock matrix of a mudstone aquifer: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 223, p. 103478, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2019.04.001.

Shapiro, A.M., Tiedeman, C.R., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Goode, D.J., Hsieh, P.A., Lacombe, P.J., DeFlaun, M.F., Drew, S.R., and Curtis, G.P., 2018, Bioremediation in fractured rock--2. mobilization of chloroethene compounds from the rock matrix: Groundwater, v. 56, no. 2, p. 317-336, doi:10.1111/gwat.12586.

Thomas, L.K., Widdowson, M.A., Chapelle, F.H., Novak, J.T., Boncal, J.E., and Lebrón, C.A., 2013, Distribution of potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon in aquifer sediments at a chloroethene-contaminated site: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 139, no. 1, p. 54-60, doi:10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000597.

Tiedeman, C.R., and Barrash, W., 2019, Hydraulic tomography--3D hydraulic conductivity, fracture network, and connectivity in mudstone: Groundwater, v. 0, no. ja, doi:10.1111/gwat.12915 (Accepted Article).

Tiedeman, C.R., Lacombe, P.J., and Goode, D.J., 2010, Multiple well-shutdown tests and site-scale flow simulation in fractured rocks: Ground Water, v. 48, no. 3, p. 401-415, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2009.00651.x.

Tiedeman, C.R., Shapiro, A.M., Hsieh, P.A., Imbrigiotta, T.E., Goode, D.J., Lacombe, P.J., DeFlaun, M.F., Drew, S.R., Johnson, C.D., Williams, J.H., and Curtis, G.P., 2018, Bioremediation in fractured rock--1. modeling to inform design, monitoring, and expectations: Groundwater, v. 56, no. 2, p. 300-316, doi:10.1111/gwat.12585.

Vroblesky, D.A., Chapelle, F.H., and Bradley, P.M., 2007, A simple pore water hydrogen diffusion syringe sampler: Ground Water, v. 45, no. 6, p. 798-802, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2007.00362.x.

Wellman, T.P., Shapiro, A.M., and Hill, M.C., 2009, Effects of simplifying fracture network representation on inert chemical migration in fracture-controlled aquifers: Water Resources Research, v. 45, no. 1, W01416, doi:10.1029/2008WR007025.

Zhu, W., and Reinfelder, J.R., 2012, The microbial community of a black shale pyrite biofilm and its implications for pyrite weathering: Geomicrobiology Journal, v. 29, no. 2, p. 186-193, doi:10.1080/01490451.2010.539663.

Noserale, D., 2006, USGS presents a world of science at GSA in Philadelphia: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 10/19/2006.

Reports (non-USGS)

Hatfield, K., 2015, Demonstration and validation of a fractured rock passive flux meter--Final report: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Report ER-200831, 194 p (ER-200831 information Web page).

Lebrón, C., Phelan, D., Heron, G., LaChance, J., Nielsen, S.G., Kueper, B., Rodriguez, D., Wemp, A., Baston, D., Lacombe, P., and Chapelle, F.H., 2013, Dense non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal from fractured rock using thermal conductive heating (TCH): Environmental Security Technology Certification Program ESTCP Final Report ER200715, 427 p.

Schaefer, C., Towne, R., Lippincott, D., and Dong., H., 2015, Coupled diffusion and reaction processes in rock matrices--Impact on dilute groundwater plumes: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) SERDP Project ER-1685, 116 p.

Student Theses/Dissertations

McKenzie, A., 2013, Simulating remediation of trichloroethylene in fractured bedrock by thermal conductive heating using the numerical model TMVOC: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Queen’s University, Master of Applied Science thesis, 99 p.

Robinson, J.L., 2015, Improving characterization of fractured rock using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT): Newark, N.J., Rutgers University, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ph.D. Dissertation, 146 p.

Rodriguez Alcocer, D.J., 2012, Assessment of thermal heating for the removal of chlorinated solvents from fractured bedrock: Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Queen’s University, Ph.D. thesis, 410 p.

Reports (USGS)

Bradley, P.M., 2012, Microbial mineralization of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride as a component of natural attenuation of chloroethene contaminants under conditions identified in the field as anoxic: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5032, 30 p.

Carleton, G.B., Welty, C., and Buxton, H.T., 1999, Design and analysis of tracer tests to determine effective porosity and dispersivity in fractured sedimentary rocks, Newark Basin, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4126-A, 80 p.

Day-Lewis, F.D., Johnson, C.D., Slater, L.D., Robinson, J.L., Williams, J.H., Boyden, C.L., Werkema, D., and Lane, J.W., Jr., 2015, The Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST) v1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Software Release 06 January 2016 (More information on the FRGT-MST tool).

Ellefsen, K.J., 2003, seg2_edit--A program for editing and manipulating SEG-2 files: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-141, 11 p.

Fiore, A.R., 2014, Transmissivity and storage coefficient estimates from slug tests, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1020, Report: HTML document; Table 1 p.

Lacombe, P., Sargent, B.P., Harte, P.T., and Vowinkel, E.F., 1986, Determination of geohydrological framework and extent of ground-water contamination using surface geophysical techniques at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4051, 31 p.

Lacombe, P.J., 2011, Mass of chlorinated volatile organic compounds removed by pump-and-treat, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1996-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5003, 32 p.

Lacombe, P.J., 2002, Ground-water levels and potentiometric surfaces, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4197, 38 p.

Lacombe, P.J., 2000, Hydrogeologic framework, water levels and trichloroethylene contamination, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 1993-97: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4167, 139 p.

Lewis-Brown, J.C., Carleton, G.B., and Imbrigiotta, T.E., 2006, Hydraulic and solute-transport properties and simulated advective transport of contaminated ground water in a fractured-rock aquifer at the Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey, 2003: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5049, 32 p.

Lewis-Brown, J.C., and Rice, D.E., 2002, Simulated ground-water flow, Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4019, 49 p.

Shapiro, A.M., 2018, A finite-difference algorithm used to simulate one-dimensional diffusion and adsorption of trichloroethene in a rock matrix: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (USGS Water Resources National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Node - This USGS data release contains all of the input and output files for the simulations described in the associated journal article (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2018.09.001).).

Shapiro, A.M., 2007, Characterizing hydraulic properties and ground-water chemistry in fractured-rock aquifers--A user's manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing T ool (BAT3): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1134, 127 p.

Shapiro, A.M., and Brenneis, R.J., 2018, Organic and total carbon analyses of rock core collected from boreholes 83BR, 84BR, 85BR, 86BR, 87BR, 88BR, AND 89BR in the mudstone underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Shapiro, A.M., Lorah, M.M., Imbrigiotta, T.E., and Goode, D.J., 2019, Concentrations of chlorinated ethene compounds in rock core collected from boreholes 83BR, 84BR, 85BR, 86BR, 87BR, 88BR, AND 89BR in the mudstone underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Szabo, Z., Taylor, T.A., Payne, D.F., and Ivahnenko, T., 1997, Relation of hydrogeologic characteristics to distribution of radioactivity in groundwater, Newark Basin, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4136, 134 p.

Tiedeman, C.R., and Barrash, W., 2019, MODFLOW-2005 and MODPATH models used to simulate hydraulic tomography pumping tests and identify a fracture network, former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (Water Resources NSDI Node).

Tiedeman, C.R., Barrash, W., Thrash, C., and Patterson, J., 2019, Pumping rate, drawdown, and atmospheric pressure data from hydraulic tomography experiment at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ, 2015-2016: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Tiedeman, C.R., Hsieh, P.A., and Shapiro, A.M., 2017, MODFLOW-2005 and MT3DMS models used to design and evaluate a bioremediation experiment at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (Water Resources National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Node).

Winston, R.B., and Shapiro, A.M., 2007, BAT3 Analyzer--Real-time data display and interpretation software for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1105, 65 p (BAT3 Analyzer software download page).

On-Line Web Pages

Chapelle, F.H., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2013, Natural attenuation accelerates pump-and-treat cleanup of TCE in fractured rock: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Rèvèsz, K.M., Tiedeman, C.R., and Buxton, H.T., 2014, Improving bioaugmentation strategies for remediating contaminated fractured rocks: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/19/2016, 2016


There are 76 publications in this section of the bibliography. The above list is sorted by publication type. There are 2 Books and Book Chapters, 5 Conference Proceedings Papers, 2 Fact Sheets, 38 Journal Articles, 1 , 3 Reports (non-USGS)s, 3 Student Theses/Dissertations, 20 Reports (USGS)s, and 2 On-Line Web Pages in this section of the bibliography. The Toxics Bibliographic Data Base was last updated on 10/9/19.

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