U.S. Geological Survey Environmental Health Mission Area Bibliography

Investigations of Watershed Contamination from Hard-Rock Mining

Books and Book Chapters

Alpers, C.N., 1995, Responsibilities and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey related to mining and the environment, in Workshop report--Mine Waste Technical Forum, Las Vegas, Nev., July 25-27, 1995: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. 3-53 to 3-63.

Alpers, C.N., Blowes, D.W., Nordstrom, D.K., and Jambor, J.L., 1994, Secondary minerals and acid mine-water chemistry, in Jambor, J.L., and Blowes, D.W., eds., Environmental geochemistry of sulfide mine-wastes: Nepean, Ontario, Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, v. 22, p. 247-270.

Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions in mining environments, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J., eds., The environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits--Part 1. Processes, methods and health issues: Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6A, p. 289-324.

Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1990, Stoichiometry of mineral reactions from mass balance computations for acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California, in Gadsy, J.W., Malick, J.W., and Day, S.J., eds., Acid-mine drainage-designing for closure: BiTech Publishers, Vancouver, B.C., p. 23-33.

Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Spitzley, J., 2003, Extreme acid mine drainage from a pyritic massive sulfide deposit, the Iron Mountain end-member, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, v. 31, p. 407-430.

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2004, Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Alamosa River and Wightman Fork, near Summitville Mine, Colorado--Application of a reactive transport model to low- and high-flow simulations, in Zannetti, P., ed., Environmental Sciences and Environmental Computing: The EnviroComp Institute, v. II, p. 1-54.

Bencala, K.E., 2010, Stream-groundwater interactions, in Wilderer, P.A., ed., Treatise on Water Science: Elsevier, v. 2 - Hydrology, Uhlenbrook, S., Ed., ISBN:978-0-444-53193-3.

Bencala, K.E., 2005, Hyporheic exchange flows, in Anderson, M.G., and McDonnell, J.J., eds., Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences: New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, v. 3, Chapter 113, p. 1,733-1,740.

Bencala, K.E., Duff, J.H., Harvey, J.W., Jackman, A.P., and Triska, F.J., 1993, Modelling within the stream-catchment continuum, in Jakeman, A.J., Beck, M.B., and McAleer, J.J., eds., Modelling Change in Environmental Systems: Wiley, p. 163-187.

Bencala, K.E., and Walters, R.A., 2010, Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream--A transient storage model (Chap. F2), in Burt, T.P., Pinay, G., and Sabater, S., eds., Riparian Zone Hydrology and Biogeochemisty--IAHS Benchmark Papers in Hydrology Series no. 5: Wallingford, U.K., IAHS Press, ISBN:978-907161-09-4 (Reprinting of Bencala and Walters, 1983: Water Resources Research, v.19, p.718-724.).

Bond, D.L., Davis, J.A., and Zachara, J.M., 2008, Uranium(VI) release from contaminated vadose zone sediments--Estimation of potential contributions from dissolution and desorption, in Barnett, M.O., and Kent, D.B., eds., Adsorption of Metals by Geomedia II--Variables, Mechanisms, and Model Applications: Amsterdam, Elsevier, v. 375-416, p. 474, ISBN:978-0-444-53212-1.

Bowell, R.J., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K., and Majzlan, J., 2014, The environmental geochemistry of arsenic--An overview, in Bowell, R., and others, eds., Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology--Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: Chantilly, Virginia, Mineralogical Society of America Geochemical Society, v. 79, p. 1-16.

Broshears, R.E., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 1995, Interpreting spatial profiles of concentration in acid mine drainage streams, in Hotchkiss, W.R., Downey, J.S., Gutentag, E.D., and Moore, J.E., eds., Water resources at risk, Denver, Colo.: Minneapolis, Minnesota, American Institute of Hydrology, p. LL-10-21.

Brown, J.G., Bassett, R.L., and Glynn, P.D., 1998, Analysis and simulation of reactive transport of metal contaminants in ground water in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Steefel, C.I., and Van Cappellen, P., eds., Special Issue--Reactive Transport Modeling of Natural Systems: New York, Elsevier, Journal of Hydrology, v. 209, p. 225-250.

Campbell, K.M., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2014, Arsenic speciation and sorption in natural environments, in Bowell, R., and others, eds., Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology--Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: Chantilly, Virginia, Mineralogical Society of America Geochemical Society, v. 79, p. 185-216.

Choi, J., Hulseapple, S.M., Conklin, M.H., and Harvey, J.W., 1998, Modeling CO2 degassing and pH in a stream-aquifer system, in Steefel, C.I., and Van Cappellen, P., eds., Special Issue--Reactive Transport Modeling of Natural Systems: New York, Elsevier, Journal of Hydrology, v. 209, p. 297-310.

Church, S.E., Owen, J.R., von Guerard, P., Verplanck, P.L., Kimball, B.A., and Yager, D.B., 2007, The effects of acidic mine drainage from historical mines in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado--What is being done and what can be done to improve water quality?, in DeGraff, J.V., ed., Understanding and responding to hazardous substances at mine sites in the western United States: Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, p. 47-83, ISBN:9780813741178.

Glynn, P.D., 2000, Solid-solution solubilities and thermodynamics--sulfates, carbonates, and halides, in Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., eds., Sulfate Minerals -- Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance: reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: Mineralogical Society of America and The Geochemical Society, v. 40, Chapter 10, p. 281-511.

Glynn, P.D., and Brown, J.G., 2011, Integrating field observations and inverse and forward modeling--Application at a site with acidic, heavy-metal-contaminated groundwater (Chapter 8), in Bundschuh, J., and Zilberbrand, M., eds., Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater, Vadose and Geothermal Systems: Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, v. 5 (Multiphysics Modeling), p. 181-234.

Glynn, P.D., and Brown, J.G., 1996, Reactive transport modeling of acidic metal-contaminated ground water at a site with sparse spatial information, in Lichtner, P.C., Steefel, C.I., and Oelkers, E.H., eds., Reactive Transport in Porous Media: Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 34, p. 377--438.

Gooseff, M.N., Bencala, K.E., and Wondzell, S.M., 2008, Solute transport along stream and river networks (Chap. 18), in Rice, S.P., Roy, A.G., and Rhoads, B.L., eds., River Confluences, Tributaries and the Fluvial Network: Hoboken, N.J., John WIley and Sons, Ltd., p. 395-417, ISBN:978-0-470-02672-4.

Harvey, J.W., and Wagner, B.J., 2000, Quantifying hydrologic interactions between streams and their subsurface hyporheic zones, in Jones, J.A., and Mulholland, P.J., eds., Streams and Ground Waters: San Diego, Academic Press, p. 3-44.

Hydro Geo Chem Inc., 1989, Investigation of acid water contamination along Miami Wash and Pinal Creek, Gila County, Arizona: Claypool, Ariz., Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation, 140 p.

Kimball, B.A., 1999, Seasonal variation in metal concentrations in a stream affected by acid mine drainage, St. Kevin Gulch, Colorado (Chapter 22), in Filipek, L.H., and Plumlee, G.S., eds., The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits--Part B, Case Studies and Research Topics: Littleton, Colo., The Society of Economic Geologists, p. 467-477.

Kimball, B.A., Runkel, R.L., and Walton-Day, K., 2003, Use of field-scale experiments and reactive transport modeling to evaluate remediation alternatives in streams affected by acid mine drainage, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series, v. 31, p. 261-282.

Kraemer, T.F., and Genereux, D.P., 1998, Applications of uranium- and thorium-series radianuclides in catchment hydrology studies, in Kendall, C., and McDonnell, J.J., eds., Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 679-722.

Kuwabara, J.S., Chang, C.C.Y., and Pasilis, S.P., 2004, Effects of benthic fauna on arsenic transport in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota, in Kuwabara, J.S., and Fuller, C.C., eds., Toxic Substances in Surface Waters and Sediments--A Study to Assess the Effects of Arsenic-Contaminated Alluvial Sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1681, p. 1-26.

Landa, E.R., Cravotta, C.A., II., Naftz, D.L., Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., and Zielinski, R.A., 1999, Geochemical investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on uranium mining, milling, and environmental restoration, in Hylko, J.M., and Salyer, R.L., eds., Proceedings from the Health Physics Society Meeting, January 24-27: Madison, WI, Medical Physics Publishing, p. 215-220.

Leib, K.J., Wright, W.G., and Mast, M.A., 1999, Using flood-analysis techniques to estimate dissolved-zinc concentrations, in Tailings and Mine Waste '99: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 633-638.

Luoma, S.N., Khan, F.R., and Croteau, M.-N., 2014, Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of metal-based engineered nanomaterials in aquatic environments--Concepts and processes (Chapter 5), in Jamie, R.L., and Eugenia, V.-J., eds., Frontiers of Nanoscience: Elsevier, v. Volume 7, p. 157-193, ISBN:1876-2778.

Marron, D.C., 1987, Floodplain storage of metal-contaminated sediments downstream of a gold mine at Lead, South Dakota, in Averett, R.C., and McKnight, D.M., eds., Chemical quality of water and the hydrologic cycle: Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, Inc., p. 193-209.

May, H.M., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1991, Assessing the solubilities and reaction kinetics of aluminous minerals in soils, in Ulrich, B., and Sumner, M.E., eds., Soil acidity: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 125-148.

McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., 2014, Sampling and monitoring during the mining phases (Chapter 2), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., 2014, Sampling and monitoring for the mine life cycle--Management technologies for metal mining influenced water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., (8 chapters, 6 appendices).

Nordstrom, D.K., 2011, Sulfide mineral oxidation, in Reitner, J., and Thiel, V., eds., Encyclopedia of Geobiology: Dordrecht, Springer, p. 856-858, ISBN:978-1-4020-9211-4 (part of the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series).

Nordstrom, D.K., 2008, Mining II--Acid mine drainage, in Callicott, J.B., and Frodeman, R., ed., Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy: Macmillan Reference USA, Gale Cengage, v. 2, p. 61-63, ISBN:9780028661377.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Modeling low-temperature geochemical processes (chapter 2), in Drever, J.I., ed., Treatise on Geochemistry: Elsevier, v. 5 of 10 volumes, p. 1-38, ISBN:9780080437514.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Effects of microbiological and geochemical interactions in mine drainage, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, v. 31, p. 227-238.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2000, Thermodynamic properties of environmental arsenic species--Limitations and needs, in Young, C., ed., Minor Elements 2000, Processing and Environmental Aspects of As, Sb, Se, Te, and Bi: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, p. 325-331.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Some fundamentals of geochemistry, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J., eds., The environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits--Part A. Processes, methods and health issues: Society of Economic Geologists Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6A, p. 117-124.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Consilience and conciliation, the need for less human impact and more humane impact, in Armannson, H.P., ed., Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 15-19, 1999, p. 139-142.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Sulfates, in Alexander, D.E., and Fairbridge, R.W., eds., Encyclopedia of Environmental Science: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 580-585.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1982, Aqueous pyrite oxidation and the consequent formation of secondary iron minerals, in Kittrick, J.A., Fanning, D.A., and Hossner, L.R., eds., Acid sulfate weathering: Soil Science Society, p. 37-56.

Nordstrom, D.K., and Alpers, C.N., 1999, The geochemistry of acid mine waters, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J., eds., The environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits--Part A. Processes, methods and health issues: Society of Economic Geologists Reviews in Economic Geology, v. 6A, p. 133-160.

Nordstrom, D.K., and Archer, D.G., 2003, Arsenic thermodynamic data and environmental geochemistry, in Welch, A.H., and Stollenwerk, K.G., eds., Arsenic in ground water--Geochemistry and Occurrence: Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 1-25.

Nordstrom, D.K., Burchard, J.M., and Alpers, C.N., 1990, The production and variability of acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain, California--A Superfund site undergoing rehabilitation, in Gadsy, J.W., Malick, J.W., and Day, S.J., eds., Acid-mine drainage-designing for closure: Vancouver, Canada, BiTech Publishers, p. 13-21.

Nordstrom, D.K., and Campbell, K.M., 2014, Modeling low-temperature geochemical processes (Chapter 7.2), in Drever, J.I., ed., Surface And Groundwater, Weathering and Soils, in Holland, H.D. and Turekian, Karl K., eds. Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd ed.): Oxford, Elsevier, v. 7, p. 27-68, ISBN:978-0-08-098300-4.

Nordstrom, D.K., Majzlan, J., and Königsberger, E., 2014, Thermodynamic properties for arsenic minerals and aqueous species, in Bowell, R., and others, eds., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: Chantilly, Virginia, Mineralogical Society of America Geochemical Society, v. 79, p. 217-255.

Nordstrom, D.K., and May, H.M., 1989, Aqueous equilibrium data for a mononuclear aluminum species, in Sposito, G., 1989, ed., The environmental chemistry of aluminum: Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press, p. 27-53.

Nordstrom, D.K., and Southam, G., 1997, Geomicrobiology of sulfide mineral oxidation, Chapter 11, in Banfield, J.F., and Nealson, K.N., eds., Geomicrobiology--Interactions Between Microbes and Minerals: Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America, v. 35, p. 361-390.

Packman, A.I., and Bencala, K.E., 2000, Modeling surface - subsurface hydrologic interactions, in Jones, J.B., and Mulholland, P.J., eds., Streams and Ground Waters: Academic Press, p. 45-80.

Plumlee, G.S., and Ziegler, T.L., 2003, The medical geochemistry of minerals, dusts, soils, and other earth materials (chapter 7), in Lollar, B.S., ed., Treatise on Geochemistry: Elsevier, v. 9 of 10 volumes, p. 1-61, ISBN:9780080437514.

Ranville, J.F., Harnish, R.A., and McKnight, D.M., 1991, Particulate and colloidal organic material in Pueblo Reservoir, Colorado--Influence of autochthonous source on chemical composition, in Baker, R.A., ed., Organic substances and sediments in water: Chelsea, Michigan, Lewis Publishers, p. 47-73.

Runkel, R.L., and Bencala, K.E., 1995, Transport of reacting solutes in rivers and streams, in Singh, V.P., ed., Environmental Hydrology: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kleuwer Academic Publishers, p. 137-164.

Russell, C.C., S., S.K., and McLemore, V.T., 2014, Sampling and monitoring program implementation (Chapter 6), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Russell, C.C., S., S.K., and McLemore, V.T., 2014, The planning process (Chapter 5), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Russell, C.C., S., S.K., and McLemore, V.T., 2014, Decision making, risk, and uncertainty (Chapter 4), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Russell, C.C., S., S.K., and McLemore, V.T., 2014, Data management, assessment, and analysis for decision-making (Chapter 7), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Smith, K.S., and Langmuir, D., 1987, Inhibition of aqueous copper and lead adsorption onto goethite by dissolved carbonate species, in Averett, R.C., and McKnight, D.M., eds., Chemical Quality of Water and the Hydrologic Cycle: Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, p. 351-358.

Smith, K.S., McLemore, V.T., and C.C., R., 2014, Sampling considerations in the mining environment (Chapter 3), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Smith, K.S., Ranville, J.F., Plumlee, G.S., and Macalady, D.L., 1998, Predictive double-layer modeling of metal sorption in mine-drainage systems, in Jenne, E.A., ed., Adsorption of metals by geomedia--variables, mechanisms, and model applications: San Diego, Calif., Academic Press, p. 521-547.

Vivit, D.V., Thorn, K.A., and Hem, J.D., 1997, Comparative results of 27A1 NMR spectrometric and ferron colorimetric analyses of hydroxaluminum hydrolysis products in aged mildly acidic aqueous systems, in Nanny, M.A., Minear, R.A., and Leenheer, J.A., eds., Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environmental Chemistry: New York, Oxford University Press, p. 140-160.

Walton-Day, K., 2003, Geochemistry of active and passive treatment processes used to treat mine drainage, in Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.W., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes: Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series, v. 31, p. 335-359.

Walton-Day, K., 1999, Geochemistry of the processes that attenuate acid mine drainage in wetlands, in Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J., eds., The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits, Part A--Processes, Techniques, and Health Issues: Littleton, Colo., The Society of Economic Geologists, p. 215-228.

Walton-Day, K., and Kimball, B.A., 2014, St. Kevin Gulch Watershed Study Area, Colorado (Appendix 5 -- Case Studies of Sampling and Monitoring), in McLemore, V.T., Smith, K.S., and Russell, C.C., eds., Sampling and Monitoring for the Mine Life Cycle--Management Technologies for Metal Mining Influenced Water: Englewood, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc.

Webster, J.G., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2003, Geothermal arsenic, in Welch, A.H., and Stollenwerk, K.G., eds., Arsenic in ground water--Geochemistry and occurrence: Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 101-125.

Wright, W.G., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Oxygen isotopes of dissolved sulfate as a tool to distinguish natural and mining-related dissolved constituents, in Tailings and Mine Waste '99: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 671-678.

Conference Proceedings Papers

Alpers, C.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1991, Geochemical evolution of extremely acid mine waters at Iron Mountain, California--Are there any lower limits to PH?, in Second International Conference on the Abatement of Acidic Drainage, Montreal, Proceedings: v. 2, p. 321-341.

Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Thompson, J.M., 1994, Seasonal variations in the Zn/Cu ratio of acid mine drainage from Iron Mountain, California, in Alpers, C.N., and Blowes, D.W., eds., Environmental geochemistry of sulfide oxidation: Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society ACS Symposium Series 550, p. 324-344.

Angeroth, C.E., Leake, S.A., and Wagner, B.J., 1999, Preliminary model development of the ground- and surface-water system in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 211-216.

Ball, J.W., Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., and To, T.B., 1999, A new method for the direct determination of dissolved Fe(III) concentration in acid mine waters, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 297-304.

Ball, J.W., Nordstrom, D.K., and Runkel, R.L., 2000, Reactive and non-reactive transport modeling for Wightman Fork, Summitville Mine, Colorado--Application of the OTIS/OTEQ model to a low-flow synoptic study, in Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Denver, Colorado, May 21-24, 2000: Littleton, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, v. 1 of 2, p. 125-134.

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2001, Reactive transport modeling at high-flow - Wightman Fork/Alamosa River, USA, in Cidu, R., ed., Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Water - Rock Interaction, Villasimius, Italy, July 10-15, 2001: A.A. Balkema Publishers, v. 2, p. 1181-1184.

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Transport modeling of reactive and non-reactive constituents from Summitville, Colorado--Preliminary results from the application of the OTIS/OTEQ model to the Wightman Fork/Alamosa River System, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 305-311.

Bencala, K.E., Kimball, B.A., and McKnight, D.M., 1991, Use of variation in solute concentration to identify interactions of the substream zone with instream transport, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 377-379.

Bencala, K.E., McKnight, D.M., Zellweger, G.W., and Kimball, B.A., 1988, Monitoring acidic streams for transport studies, in Mallard, G.E., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Surface-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Denver, Colorado, February 2-4, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-764, p. 119-124.

Bencala, K.E., and Ortiz, R.F., 1999, Theory and(or) reality--Analysis of sulfate mass-balance at Summitville, Colorado, poses process questions about the estimation of metal loadings, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 119-122.

Besser, J.M., and Leib, K.J., 1999, Modeling frequency of occurrence of toxic concentrations of zinc and copper in the Upper Animas River, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 75-81.

Best, J.E., Geiger, K.E., and O'Day, P.A., 1999, Partitioning of trace metals between contaminated stream waters and manganese oxide minerals, Pinal Creek, Arizona, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 227-237.

Bove, D.J., Mast, M.A., Wright, W.G., Verplanck, P.L., Meeker, G.P., and Yager, D.B., 2000, Geologic control on acidic and metal-rich waters in the southeast Red Mountains area near Silverton, Colorado--Proceedings of the International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Denver, May 22-25, 2000, in Church, S.E., ed., Preliminary release of scientific reports on the acidic drainage in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-034, p. 1-11.

Boyer, E.W., Hornberger, G.W., and Bencala, K.E., 1993, Hydrological controls on the temporal variation of dissolved organic carbon in Deer Creek near Montezuma, Colorado, in McAleer, M., and Jakeman, A., eds., Proceedings of the 10th Biennial Conference of the Modeling and Simulation Society of Australia, December 6-10, 1993: The University of Western Australia, p. 501-506.

Boyle, T.P., and Gustina, G.W., 2000, A strategy for use of multivariate methods of analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to assess mine-related ecological stress, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Denver, Colorado, May 21-24, 2000: Littleton, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, p. 1425-1432.

Broshears, R.E., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 1996, Simulation of reactive transport during a pH modification experiment in a mountain stream affected by acid mine drainage, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 781-788.

Broshears, R.E., Runkel, R.L., and Kimball, B.A., 1994, Development and application of a reactive solute transport model for trace metals in mountain streams, in Dutton, A.R., ed., Toxic Substances and the Hydrologic Sciences--Proceedings of the conference, Austin, Texas, April 10-13, 1994: Minneapolis, Minn., American Institute of Hydrology, p. 19-34.

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Wright, W.G., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1999, Oxygen isotopes of dissolved sulfate as a tool to distinguish natural and mining-related dissolved constituents, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 1 of 3--Contamination from Hardrock Mining: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018A, p. 67-73.

Zellweger, G.W., 1996, Tracer injections in small streams--Why and how we do them, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 765-767.

Zellweger, G.W., Bencala, K.E., Kimball, B.A., and McKnight, D.M., 1989, Evaluation of lithium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate as tracers to investigate hydrologic aspects of acidic, metal-rich streams, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 609.

Zellweger, G.W., Bencala, K.E., McKnight, D.M., Hirsch, R.M., and Kimball, B.A., 1988, Practical aspects of tracer experiments in acidic, metal enriched streams, in Mallard, G.E., ed., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Surface-Water Contamination--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Denver, Colorado, February 2-4, 1987: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-764, p. 125-130.

Zellweger, G.W., and Maura, W.S., 1991, Calculation of conservative tracer and flume-discharge measurements on a small mountain stream, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 434-437.

Zielinski, R.A., and Asher-Bolinder, S., 1996, Uraniferous waters of southeastern Colorado--A function of geology, climate and land use, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 2, p. 805-812.

Fact Sheets

Alpers, C.N., and Hunerlack, M.P., 2000, Mercury contamination from historic gold mining in California: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-061-00, 6 p.

Brown, J.G., Brew, R., and Harvey, J.W., 1997, Research on acidic metal contaminants in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-005-97, 4 p.

Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., 2007, Environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3051, 4 p.

Kimball, B.A., 1997, Use of tracer injections and synoptic sampling to measure metal loading from acid mine drainage: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-245-96, 4 p.

Lewis, M.E., and Clark, M.L., 1997, How does streamflow affect metals in the Upper Arkansas River?: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-226-96, 4 p.

Nimick, D.A., 2005, Environmental effects of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, southwestern Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3148, 2 p.

Nimick, D.A., 2003, Diurnal variation in trace-metal concentrations in streams: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 086-03, 4 p.

Runkel, R.L., 2000, Using OTIS to model solute transport in streams and rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 138-99, 4 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1999, The USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative--Protecting and restoring the environment near abandoned mine lands: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 095-99, 2 p.

Verstraeten, I.M., Böhlke, J.K., Kraemer, T.F., and Cannia, J., 2002, Use of environmental tracers and isotopes to evaluate sources of water, nitrate, and uranium in an irrigated alluvial valley, Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 100-01, 4 p.

Wright, W.G., 1997, Natural and mining-related sources of dissolved minerals during low-flow in the upper Animas River, Southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-148-97, 6 p.

Wright, W.G., and Janik, C.J., 1996, Naturally occurring and mining-affected dissolved metals in two subbasins of the Upper Animas River Basin, southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-243-95, 4 p.

Journal Articles

Alpers, C.N., Jambor, J.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2000, Sulfate minerals--crystallography, geochemistry, and environmental significance: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 608, doi:10.2138/rmg.2000.40.12.

Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Ball, J.W., 1989, Solubility of jarosite solid solutions precipitated from acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California: Science Geological Bulletin, v. 42, p. 281-298.

Alpers, C.N., Rye, R.O., Nordstrom, D.K., White, L.D., and King, B.S., 1992, Chemical crystallographic and isotopic properties of alunite and jarosite from acid hypersaline Australian lakes: Chemical Geology, v. 96, p. 203-226, doi:10.1016/0009-2541(92)90129-S.

Alpers, C.N., Yee, J.L., Ackerman, J.T., Orlando, J.L., Slotton, D.G., and Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., 2016, Prediction of fish and sediment mercury in streams using landscape variables and historical mining: Science of the Total Environment, v. 571, p. 364-379, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.088.

Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., and Alpers, C.N., 2012, Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the Sacramento River near Keswick Reservoir: Chemical Geology, v. 298-299, p. 70-78, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.12.025.

Arai, Y., and Fuller, C.C., 2012, Effects of sulfate ligand on uranyl carbonato surface species on ferrihydrite surfaces: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, v. 365, no. 1, p. 268-274, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2011.09.026.

Arai, Y., McBeath, M., Bargar, J.R., Joye, J., and Davis, J.A., 2006, Uranyl adsorption and surface speciation at the imogolite-water interface--Self-consistent spectroscopic and surface complexation models: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, no. 10, p. 2492-2509, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.02.013.

Asta, M.P., Kirk Nordstrom, D., and Blaine McCleskey, R., 2012, Simultaneous oxidation of arsenic and Antimony at low and circumneutral pH, with and without microbial catalysis: Applied Geochemistry, v. 27, no. 1, p. 281-291, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.09.002.

Axtmann, E.V., Cain, D.J., and Luoma, S.N., 1997, Effect of tributary inflow of the distribution of trace metals in fine-grained sediments and benthic insects of the Clark Fork River, Montana: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 3, p. 750-758, doi:10.1021/es960417y.

Baeseman, J., Smith, R., and Silverstein, J., 2006, Denitrification potential in stream sediments impacted by acid mine drainage--Effects of pH, various electron donors, and iron: Microbial Ecology, v. 51, no. 2, p. 232-241, doi:10.1007/s00248-005-5155-z.

Balistrieri, L.S., Nimick, D.A., and Mebane, C.A., 2012, Assessing time-integrated dissolved concentrations and predicting toxicity of metals during diel cycling in streams: Science of the Total Environment, v. 425, p. 155-168, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.008.

Ball, J.W., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1998, Critical evaluation and selection of standard state thermodynamic properties for chromium metal and its aqueous ions, hydrolysis species, oxides, and hydroxides: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, v. 43, no. 6, p. 895-918, doi:10.1021/je980080a.

Bargar, J.R., Fuller, C.C., Marcus, M.A., Brearley, A.J., Perez De la Rosa, M., Webb, S.M., and Caldwell, W.A., 2009, Structural characterization of terrestrial bacteriogenic Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73, no. 4, p. 889-910, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.10.036.

Bargar, J.R., Reitmeyer, R., and Davis, J.A., 1999, Spectroscopic confirmation of uranium(VI)-carbonato adsorption complexes on hematite: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 14, p. 2481-2484, doi:10.1021/es990048g.

Bargar, J.R., Reitmeyer, R., Lenhart, J.J., and Davis, J.A., 2000, Characterization of uranium (VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite--EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 64, p. 2737-2749, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00398-7.

Bargar, J.R., Williams, K.H., Campbell, K.M., Long, P.E., Stubbs, J.E., Suvorova, E.I., Lezama-Pacheco, J.S., Alessi, D.S., Stylo, M., Webb, S.M., Davis, J.A., Giammar, D.E., Blue, L.Y., and Bernier-Latmani, R., 2013, Uranium redox transition pathways In acetate-amended sediments: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 110, no. 12, p. 4506-11, doi:10.1073/pnas.1219198110.

Beisner, K.R., Paretti, N.V., Tillman, F.D., Naftz, D.L., Bills, D.J., Walton-Day, K., and Gallegos, T.J., 2016, Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs--Assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA): Hydrogeology Journal, v. 25, no. 2, p. 539-556, doi:10.1007/s10040-016-1494-8.

Bencala, K.E., 2000, Invited Commentary--Hyporheic zone hydrological processes: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, no. 15, p. 2797-2798, doi:10.1002/1099-1085(20001030)14:15<2797::AID-HYP402>3.0.CO;2-6.

Bencala, K.E., 1993, A perspective on stream-catchment connections: Journal of North American Benthological Society, v. 12, p. 44-47, doi:10.2307/1467684.

Bencala, K.E., Gooseff, M.N., and Kimball, B.A., 2011, Rethinking hyporheic flow and transient storage to advance understanding of stream-catchment connections: Water Resources Research, v. 47, no. 3, W00H03, doi:10.1029/2010wr010066.

Bencala, K.E., and Walters, R.A., 1983, Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream--A transient storage model: Water Resources Research, v. 19, no. 3, p. 718-724, doi:10.1029/WR019i003p00718.

Bern, C.R., Walton-Day, K., and Naftz, D., 2019, Improved enrichment factor calculations through principal component analysis--Examples from soils near breccia pipe uranium mines, Arizona, USA: Environmental Pollution, v. 248, p. 90-100, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.122.

Besser, J.M., Brumbaugh, W.G., and Ingersoll, C.G., 2015, Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas: Applied Geochemistry, v. 57, p. 73-84, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.05.021.

Besser, J.M., Brumbaugh, W.G., May, T.W., Church, S.E., and Kimball, B.A., 2001, Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Upper Animas River Watershed, Colorado: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 40, no. 1, p. 48-59, doi:10.1007/s002440010147.

Besser, J.M., Ingersoll, C.G., Brumbaugh, W.G., Kemble, N.E., May, T.W., Wang, N., MacDonald, D.D., and Roberts, A.D., 2015, Toxicity of sediments from lead–zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 34, no. 3, p. 626-639, doi:10.1002/etc.2849.

Besser, J.M., Steevens, J., Kunz, J.L., Brumbaugh, W.G., Ingersoll, C.G., Cox, S., Mebane, C., Balistrieri, L., Sinclair, J., and MacDonald, D., 2018, Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from the Upper Columbia River, Washington USA, to benthic invertebrates: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi:10.1002/etc.4276 (Accepted Article).

Bethune, J., Randell, J., Runkel, R.L., and Singha, K., 2015, Non-invasive flow path characterization in a mining-impacted wetland: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 183, p. 29-39, doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.10.002.

Beyer, W.N., Casteel, S.W., Friedrichs, K.R., Gramlich, E., Houseright, R.A., Nichols, J.R., Karouna-Renier, N.K., Kim, D.Y., Rangen, K.L., Rattner, B.A., and Schultz, S.L., 2018, Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the southeast Missouri lead mining district: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 190, no. 2, p. 104, doi:10.1007/s10661-017-6442-0.

Bigham, J.M., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2000, Iron and aluminum hydroxysulfates from acid sulfate waters: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 40, p. 351-403, doi:10.2138/rmg.2000.40.7.

Böhlke, J.K., Verstraeten, I.M., and Kraemer, T.F., 2007, Effects of surface-water irrigation on the sources, fluxes, and residence times of water, nitrate, and uranium in an alluvial aquifer: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 1, p. 152-174, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.08.019.

Borrok, D.M., Nimick, D.A., Wanty, R.B., and Ridley, W.I., 2008, Isotopic variation of dissolved copper and zinc in stream waters affected by historical mining: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72, no. 2, p. 329-344, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2007.11.014.

Borrok, D.M., Wanty, R.B., Ridley, W.I., Lamothe, P.J., Kimball, B.A., Verplank, P.L., and Runkel, R.L., 2009, Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 7, p. 1270-1277, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.03.010.

Borrok, D.M., Wanty, R.B., Ridly, W.I., Wolf, R., Lamothe, P.J., and Adams, M., 2007, Separation of copper, iron, and zinc from complex aqueous solutions for isotopic measurement: Chemical Geology, v. 242, no. 3-4, p. 400-414, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.04.004.

Bouse, R.M., Fuller, C.C., Luoma, S., Hornberger, M.I., Jaffe, B.E., and Smith, R.E., 2010, Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay: San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, v. 8, no. 1.

Bove, D.J., Walton-Day, K., and Kimball, B.A., 2009, The use of fluoride as a natural tracer and the relationship to geologic features--Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Geochemistry--Exploration, Environment, and Analysis, v. 9, no. 2, p. 125-138, doi:10.1144/1467-7873/09-197.

Boyer, E.W., Hornberger, G.M., Bencala, K.E., and McKnight, D.M., 2000, Effects of asynchronous snowmelt on flushing of dissolved organic carbon--A mixing model approach: Hydrological Processes, v. 14, no. 18, p. 3291-3308, doi:10.1002/1099-1085(20001230)14:18<3291::AID-HYP202>3.0.CO;2-2.

Boyer, E.W., Hornberger, G.M., Bencala, K.E., and McKnight, D.M., 1997, Response characteristics of DOC flushing in an alpine catchment: Hydrological Processes, v. 11, no. 12, p. 1635-1647, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19971015)11:12<1635::AID-HYP494>3.0.CO;2-H.

Boyer, E.W., Hornberger, G.M., Bencala, K.E., and McKnight, D.M., 1996, Overview of a simple model describing variation of dissolved organic carbon in an upland catchment: Ecological Modeling, v. 86, p. 183-188, doi:10.1016/0304-3800(95)00049-6.

Breault, R.F., Colman, J.A., Aiken, G.R., and McKnight, D.M., 1996, Copper speciation and binding by organic matter in copper-contaminated streamwater: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 12, p. 3477-3486, doi:10.1021/es9601301.

Briggs, M.A., Day-Lewis, F.D., Ong, J.B.T., Curtis, G.P., and Lane, J.W., 2013, Simultaneous estimation of local-scale and flow path-scale dual-domain mass transfer parameters using geoelectrical monitoring: Water Resources Research, v. 49, no. 9, p. 5615-5630, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20397.

Brooks, P.D., McKnight, D.M., and Bencala, K.E., 2001, Annual maxima in zinc concentrations during spring snowmelt in streams impacted by mine drainage: Environmental Geology, v. 40, no. 11-12, p. 1447-1454, doi:10.1007/s002540100338.

Brooks, P.D., McKnight, D.M., and Bencala, K.E., 1999, The relationship between soil heterotrophic activity, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leachate, and catchment-scale DOC export in headwater catchments: Water Resources Research, v. 35, no. 6, p. 1895-1902, 1998WR900125, doi:10.1029/1998WR900125.

Broshears, R.E., 1996, Reactive solute transport in acidic streams: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 90, no. 1-2, p. 195-204, doi:10.1007/BF00619281.

Broshears, R.E., Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Bencala, K.E., and McKnight, D.M., 1996, Reactive solute transport in an acidic stream--Experimental pH increase and simulation of controls on pH, aluminum, and iron: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 30, no. 10, p. 3016-24, doi:10.1021/es960055u.

Brown, J.G., Bassett, R.L., and Glynn, P.D., 2000, Reactive transport of metal contaminants in alluvium--Model comparison and column simulation: Applied Geochemistry, v. 15, no. 1, p. 35-50, doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(99)00004-9.

Brown, J.G., and Glynn, P.D., 2003, Kinetic dissolution of carbonates and Mn oxides in acidic water--measurement of in situ field rates and reactive transport modeling: Applied Geochemistry, v. 18, no. 8, p. 1225-1239, doi:10.1016/S0883-2927(03)00010-6.

Buchwalter, D.B., Cain, D.J., Clements, W.H., and Luoma, S.N., 2008, Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 42, no. 8, p. 3,117-3,117, doi:10.1021/es703130e.

Buchwalter, D.B., Cain, D.J., Clements, W.H., and Luoma, S.N., 2007, Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 41, no. 13, p. 4,821-4,828, doi:10.1021/es070464y.

Bushman, T.J., Akob, D.M., Bohu, T., Beyer, A., Woyke, T., Shapiro, N., Lapidus, A., Klenk, H.-P., and Küsel, K., 2019, Draft genome sequence of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Oxalobacteraceae sp. strain AB_14: Microbiology Resource Announcements, v. 8, no. 43, e01024-19, doi:10.1128/MRA.01024-19.

Byrne, P., Runkel, R.L., and Walton-Day, K., 2017, Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 24, no. 20, p. 17220-17240, doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9038-x.

Cain, D., Croteau, M.-N., and Luoma, S., 2011, Bioaccumulation dynamics and exposure routes of Cd and Cu among species of aquatic mayflies: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 30, no. 11, p. 2532-2541, doi:10.1002/etc.663.

Cain, D.J., Buchwalter, D.B., and Luoma, S.N., 2006, Influence of metal exposure history on the bioaccumulation and subcellular distribution of aqueous cadmium in the insect Hydropsyche californica: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 25, no. 4, p. 1042-1049, doi:10.1897/05-255R.1.

Cain, D.J., Carter, J.L., Fend, S.V., Luoma, S.N., Alpers, C.N., and Taylor, H.E., 2000, Metal exposure in a benthic macroinvertebrate, Hydropsyche californica, related to mine drainage in the Sacramento River: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 57, no. 2, p. 380-390, doi:10.1139/f99-260.

Cain, D.J., Croteau, M.-N., and Fuller, C.C., 2013, Dietary bioavailability of Cu adsorbed to colloidal hydrous ferric oxide: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 47, no. 6, p. 2869-2876, doi:10.1021/es3044856.

Cain, D.J., Croteau, M.-N., Fuller, C.C., and Ringwood, A.H., 2016, Dietary uptake of Cu sorbed to hydrous iron oxide is linked to cellular toxicity and feeding inhibition in a benthic grazer: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 50, no. 3, p. 1552-1560, doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b04755.

Cain, D.J., Croteau, M.N., and Fuller, C.C., 2019, Competitive interactions among H, Cu, and Zn ions moderate aqueous uptake of Cu and Zn by an aquatic insect: Environmental Pollution, v. 255, 113220, doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113220.

Cain, D.J., Luoma, S.N., and Wallace, W.G., 2004, Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distributions in a mining-impacted river: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 23, p. 1463-1473, doi:10.1897/03-291.

Calfee, R.D., and Little, E.E., 2017, Toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to the threatened Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] chiricahuensis): Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 99, no. 6, p. 679-683, doi:10.1007/s00128-017-2188-1.

Calfee, R.D., Puglis, H.J., Little, E.E., Brumbaugh, W.G., and Mebane, C.A., 2016, Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis: Journal of Visualized Experiments, v. 2016, no. 108, e53477, doi:10.3791/53477.

Callender, E., and Robbins, J.A., 1993, Transport and accumulation of radionuclides and stable elements in a Missouri River reservoir: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 6, p. 1787-1804, 93WR00387, doi:10.1029/93WR00387.

Campbell, K.M., Davis, J.A., Bargar, J., Giammar, D., Bernier-Latmani, R., Kukkadapu, R., Williams, K.H., Veramani, H., Ulrich, K.U., Stubbs, J., Yabusaki, S., Figueroa, L., Lesher, E., Wilkins, M.J., Peacock, A., and Long, P.E., 2011, Composition, stability, and measurement of reduced uranium phases for groundwater bioremediation at Old Rifle, CO: Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, Supplement, p. S167-S169, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.094.

Campbell, K.M., Gallegos, T.J., and Landa, E.R., 2014, Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation: Applied Geochemistry, v. 57, p. 206-235, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.07.022.

Caruso, B.S., Cox, T.J., Runkel, R.L., Velleux, M.L., Bencala, K.E., Nordstrom, D.K., Julien, P.Y., Butler, B.A., Alpers, C.N., Marion, A., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Metals fate and transport modelling in streams and watersheds--State of the science and USEPA workshop review: Hydrologic Processes, v. 22, no. 19, p. 4011-4021, doi:10.1002/hyp.7114.

Chapin, T.P., Nimick, D.A., Gammons, C.H., and Wanty, R.B., 2007, Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage--Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 133, no. 1-3, p. 161-167, doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9569-y.

Chapin, T.P., and Wanty, R., 2005, Development of a solenoid pumped in situ zinc analyzer for environmental monitoring: Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 543, no. 1-2, p. 199-208, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.04.046.

Chapra, S.C., and Runkel, R.L., 1999, Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 125, no. 5, p. 415-419, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1999)125:5(415).

Cherry, J.A., Morel, F.M.M., Rouse, J.V., Schnoor, J.L., and Wolman, M.G., 1986, Hydrochemistry of sulfide and arsenic-rich tailings and alluvium along Whitewood Creek, South Dakota: Colorado School of Mines, Mineral and Energy Resources, v. 29, no. 5, 6, and 7, p. 44.

Choi, J., Harvey, J.W., and Conklin, M.H., 2000, Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams: Water Resources Research, v. 36, no. 6, p. 1511-1518, 2000WR900051, doi:10.1029/2000WR900051.

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Waychunas, G.A., Davis, J.S., and Fuller, C.C., 1995, Geometry of sorbed arsenate on ferrihydrite and crystalline FeOOH--Re-evaluation of EXAFS results and topological factors in predicting sorbate geometry and evidence for monodentate complexes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 3655-3661, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)00276-6.

Waychunas, G.A., Fuller, C.C., and Davis, J.A., 2002, Surface complexation and precipitate geometry of aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite--I. X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy analysis: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66, p. 1119-1137, doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00853-5.

Waychunas, G.A., Fuller, C.C., Rea, B.A., and Davis, J.A., 1996, Wide angle X-ray scattering (WQXS) study of "two-line" ferrihydrite structure--Effect of arsenate sorption and counterion variation and comparison with EXAFS results: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 60, p. 1765-1782, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(96)89830-9.

Waychunas, G.A., Rea, B.A., Fuller, C.C., and Davis, J.A., 1993, Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite--I. EXAFS studies of the geometry of coprecipitated and adsorbed arsenate: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 57, no. 10, p. 2251-2269, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(93)90567-G.

Waychunas, G.A., Xu, N., Fuller, C.C., Davis, J.A., and Bigham, J.M., 1995, XAS study of arsenate and selenate substituted schwertmannite: Physica B, v. 208, p. 481-483.

Webb, S.M., Fuller, C.C., Tebo, B.M., and Bargar, J.R., 2006, Determination of uranyl incorporation into biogenic manganese oxides using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scattering: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 771-777, doi:10.1021/es051679f.

Wesner, J.S., Walters, D.M., Schmidt, T.S., Kraus, J.M., Stricker, C.A., Clements, W.H., and Wolf, R.E., 2017, Metamorphosis affects metal concentrations and isotopic signatures in a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus)--Implications for the aquatic-terrestrial transfer of metals: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 51, no. 4, p. 2438-2446, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05471.

White, S.J.O., Hussain, F.A., Hemond, H.F., Sacco, S.A., Shine, J.P., Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., and Kimball, B.A., 2017, The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage: Science of the Total Environment, v. 574, p. 1484-1491, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.136.

Williams, R.L., Mayer, K.U., Amos, R.T., Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., and Bain, J.G., 2007, Using dissolved gas analysis to investigate the performance of an organic carbon permeable reactive barrier for the treatment of mine drainage: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, no. 1, p. 90-108, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.09.007.

Wood, S.A., Gammons, C.H., and Parker, S.R., 2006, The behavior of rare earth elements in naturally and anthropogenically acidified waters: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 418, no. 1-2, p. 161-165, doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.07.082.

Yin, J., Haggerty, R., Stoliker, D.L., Kent, D.B., Istok, J.D., Greskowiak, J., and Zachara, J.M., 2011, Transient groundwater chemistry near a river--Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments: Water Resources Research, v. 47, no. 4, W04502, doi:10.1029/2010wr009369.

Yin, R., Gu, C., Feng, X., Hurley, J.P., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Lepak, R.F., Zhu, W., Zheng, L., and Hu, T., 2016, Distribution and geochemical speciation of soil mercury in Wanshan Hg mine--Effects of cultivation: Geoderma, v. 272, p. 32-38, doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.03.003.

Zellweger, G.W., 1994, Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection: Hydrological Processes, v. 8, no. 2, p. 155-65, doi:10.1002/hyp.3360080206.

Newsletter and Magazine Articles

Bekins, B., Rittmann, B.E., and MacDonald, J.A., 2001, Natural attenuation strategy for groundwater cleanup focuses on demonstrating cause and effect: Eos, v. 82, no. 5, p. 53, 57-58.

Kelley, K.D., Eppinger, R.G., and Walton-Day, K., 2002, Selected geochemical studies related to mineral deposits by the U.S. Geological Survey: Explore Newsletter, Society of Exploration Geochemists, v. 116, p. 1-23.

Niyogi, D.K., McKinght, D.M., and Lewis, W.M., Jr., 2002, Effects of mine drainage on breakdown of aspen litter in mountain streams: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution--Focus, v. 2, p. 329-341.

News Releases

Demas, A., and Focazio, M., 2016, USGS assesses baseline conditions prior to uranium mining near Grand Canyon National Park: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 03/03/2016.

Gordon, L.C., 2016, Living organisms take up uranium from their environment: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 08/04/2016.

Koontz, H., Plumlee, G., and Walton-Day, K., 2015, USGS scientists study effects of Gold King Mine release: U.S. Geological Survey News Release, 08/20/2015.

Reports (non-USGS)

Beisner, K.R., Tillman, F.D., Anderson, J.R., Antweiler, R.C., and Bills, D.J., 2017, Geochemical characterization of groundwater discharging from Springs North of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2009–2016: Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5068.

Biochemielab, and Bianchi, F., 2006, Studio del trasporto di massa del fiume Merse nel tratto tra il fosso di Ribudelli e le Vene di Ciciano, eseguito con il metodo dell'immissione continuativa di un tracciante ed il campionamento sinottico: Firenze, Italia, Geosciences, 28 p.

Boyer, E.W., McKnight, D.M., Bencala, K.E., Brooks, P.D., Anthony, M.W., Zellweger, G.W., and Harnish, R.E., 1999, Streamflow and water quality characteristics for the Upper Snake River and Deer Creek Catchments in Summit County, Colorado--Water years 1980 to 1990: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Occasional Paper 53, 81 p (+ diskett).

Davis, J.A., and Curtis, G.P., 2003, Application of surface complexation modeling to describe uranium (VI) adsorption and retardation at the uranium mill tailings site at Naturita, Colorado: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG CR-6820.

Davis, S.N., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1992, Hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes at the Stripa mine (Sweden): Stripa Project Technical Report 92-19, 178 p.

Dodge, K.A., Hornberger, M.I., and Turner, M.A., 2018, Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2015 through September 2016) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana: Open-File Report 2017-1136, 128 p.

Envirologic Systems Inc., 1983, Mining activities and water-quality report: Florence, Arizona, Central Arizona Association of Governments Mineral Extraction Task Force Report METF7, 142 p.

Fuller, C.C., and Akstin, K.C., 2014, Laboratory studies of biostimulated uranium reduction by ISR aquifer sediments and suboxic remobilization of sequestered uranium (Chapter 3), in Yabusaki, S.B., and others, eds., Assessing the Potential for Biorestoration of Uranium In Situ Recovery Sites: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-7167.

Fuller, C.C., Johnson, K.J., Akstin, K.C., Singer, D.M., Yabusaki, S.B., Fang, Y., and Fuhrmann, M., 2014, Uranium sequestration during biostimulated reduction and in response to the return of oxic conditions in shallow aquifers: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREG/CR-7178.

Macalady, D.L., and Walton-Day, K., 2011, Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM)--Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare, in Tratnyek, P.G., Grundl, T.J., and Haderlein, S.B., eds., Aquatic Redox Chemistry: American Chemical Society 1071, p. 85-111.

Marron, D.C., 1989, The transport of mine tailings as suspended sediment in the Belle Fourche River, west-central South Dakota, USA: International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Publication no. 184 (Sediment and the Environment), 19-26 p.

Ortiz, R.F., von Guerard, P.B., and Walton-Day, K., 1995, Effect of a localized rainstorm on the water quality of the Alamosa River upstream from Terrace Reservoir, south-central Colorado, August 9-10, 1993, in Posey, H.H., Pendleton, J.A., and Van Zyl, D., eds., Colorado Geological Survey Summitville Forum '95: Colorado Geological Survey Special Publication 38, p. 178-182.

Puls, R.W., Eychaner, J.H., and Powell, R.M., 1990, Colloidal-facilitated transport of inorganic contaminants in ground water--Pt. I, Sampling considerations: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Research Brief EPA 600/M-90/023, 11 p.

Runkel, R.L., and Broshears, R.L., 1992, One-dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS)--A solute transport model for small streams: Boulder, Colo., CADSWES, 1 p.

Ward, E.C., and Walton-Day, K., 1995, Seasonal variation in water quality on Wightman Fork of the Alamosa River, 1993: Colorado Geological Survey Special Publication 38, 183-190 p.

Yabusaki, S.B., Fang, Y., Waichler, S.R., Fuller, C.C., Akstin, K., Long, P.E., and Fuhrmann, M., 2014, Assessing the potential for biorestoration of uranium in situ recovery sites: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Student Theses/Dissertations

Aiko, K.C., 2003, Investigation of zinc uptake processes by manganese-oxide-coated sediments from a mining-contaminated stream, Pinal Creek, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, MS Thesis, 200 p.

Baesman, S.M., 2004, Denitrification in acid-impacted mountain stream sediments: Boulder, University of Colorado, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Ph.S. dissertation, 200 p.

Best, J.E., 2002, Geochemical characterization of trace metal substitution in manganese precipitates from Pinal Creek, Arizona: Tempe, Arizona State University, M.S. Thesis, 126 p.

Boyer, E.W., 1994, Hydrology and the variation of dissolved organic carbon in soil and stream waters of two headwater catchments--Summit County, Colorado: Charlottesville, University of Virginia, Master of Science Thesis, Environmental Science, 102 p.

Brown, J.G., 1996, Movement of metal contaminants in ground water in the Pinal Creek basin, Arizona---Model assessment and simulation of reactive transport: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 236 p.

Choi, J., 1998, Transport modeling of metal contaminants in a stream-aquifer system: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Ph.D. Dissertation, 225 p.

Flinchbaugh, H., 1996, Biotic and abiotic processes contributing to the removal of Mn(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) from Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, unpublished M.S. thesis, 150 p.

Geiger, K.E., 1999, Characterization and distribution of transition metals in manganese oxides from a mining-contaminated stream, Pinal Creek, Arizona: Tempe, Arizona State University, Department of Geological Sciences, Unpublished Masters thesis, 128 p.

Gilbert, H.L., 2003, An investigation of biofilms and manganese oxide formation in Pinal Creek, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, M.S. Thesis, 292 p.

Haschenburger, J.K., 1989, Variation of copper in stream sediment: Tempe, Arizona State University, M.S. thesis, 67 p.

Hulseapple, S.M., 1995, A field study of reareation and solute transport at Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 94 p.

Kay, J., 2000, The reactive uptake and release of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) by sediments from a mining-contaminated stream, Pinal Creek, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, unpublished M.S. thesis, 221 p.

Koelsch, R.S., 2000, Effects of floods and recovering aquatic vegetation on surface and subsurface storage processes at Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, M.S. Thesis, 114 p.

Marble, J.C., 1998, Biotic contribution of Mn(II) removal at Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, unpublished M.S. thesis, 191 p.

Neaville, C.C., 1991, Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water and surface-water flow in the Pinal Creek basin, Gila County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 149 p.

Parker, E.A., 1998, A photochemical study of manganese oxides from Pinal Creek, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, M.S. Thesis, 96 p.

Ranville, J.F., 1992, Factors influencing the electrophoretic mobility of suspended sediments in acid mine drainage: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (T-4213), 270 p.

Reese, R.S., 1989, Characterization of organic contamination of ground water in a mining area, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 138 p.

Robbins, E.A., 2003, The role of water speedwell in the distribution and rates of metal removal from Pinal Creek, near Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. Thesis, 213 p.

Runkel, R.L., 1993, Development and application of an equilibrium-based simulation model for reactive solute transport in small streams: Boulder, University of Colorado, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 202 p.

Smith, K.S., 1991, Factors influencing metal sorption onto iron-rich sediment in acid-mine drainage: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, Ph.D. thesis, 239 p.

Spindler, P.H., 1993, Algal distribution and chemical gradients in Pinal Creek, Gila County, Arizona: Tempe, Arizona State University, M.S. thesis, 73 p.

Taylor, J.A., 1998, Waste rock effects on mine drainage water, upper Animas watershed, Colorado: Durango, Colo., Fort Lewis College, unpublished thesis, 17 p.

Villinski, J.E., 2001, Dissolution of manganese (IV) oxides and precipitation of ferric iron--Implications for redox processes in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: Tucson, University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Ph.D. Dissertation, 349 p.

Wallin, R.W., 1991, Ground-water transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in association with humic substances in the Pinal Creek basin, Globe, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 80 p.

Walton-Day, K., 1991, Hydrology and geochemistry of a natural wetland affected by acid mine drainage St. Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation T-4033, 299 p.

Reports (USGS)

Allert, A.L., 2017, Female Faxonius (formerly Orconectes) quadruncus broodstock for toxicity testing: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Alpers, C.N., Antweiler, R.C., Taylor, H.E., Dileanis, P.D., and Domagalski, J.J., 2000, Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 2. Interpretation of metal loads: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4002, 106 p.

Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Antweiler, R.C., Lasorsa, B.K., De Wild, J.F., and Snyder, N.P., 2006, Geochemical data for mercury, methylmercury, and other constitutents in sediments from Englebright Lake, California, 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 151, 95 p.

Alpers, C.N., Hunerlach, M.P., May, J.T., Hothem, R.L., Taylor, H.E., Antweiler, R.C., De Wild, J.F., and Lawler, D.A., 2005, Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5251, 278 p.

Alpers, C.N., Nordstrom, D.K., and Burchard, J.M., 1992, Compilation and interpretation of water quality and discharge data for acid mine waters at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, 1940-91: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4160, 173 p.

Alpers, C.N., Stewart, A.R., Saiki, M.K., Marvin-DiPasquale, M., Topping, B.R., Rider, K.M., Gallanthine, S.K., Kester, C.A., Rye, R.O., Antweiler, R.C., and DeWild, J.F., 2008, Environmental factors affecting mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, 2001-03: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5008, 358 p.

Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., 2000, Summary and conclusions, in Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., eds., Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, p. 98-99.

Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., 2000, Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, 428 p.

Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., Roth, D.A., Cain, D.J., Ball, J.W., Unruh, D.M., and Deleanis, P.D., 2000, Study design--Field and laboratory methods, in Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., eds., Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, p. 19-37.

Angeroth, C.E., 2002, Characterization of hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium and basin fill, Pinal Creek basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4205, 27 p.

Antweiler, R.C., Dileanis, P.D., Alpers, C.N., and Taylor, H.E., 2000, Results, in Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., eds., Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, p. 62-97.

Baedecker, M.J., Back, W., and Cravotta III, C.A., 1994, Consequences of energy use on water, in Carter, L.M.H., ed., Tenth V.E. McKelvey Forum, Energy and the Environment - Application of geosciences to decision making: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1108, p. 34-36.

Ball, J.W., McMleskey, R.B., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2010, Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010-1192, 84 p.

Ball, J.W., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1994, A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colormetric techniques for the determination of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4122, 151 p.

Ball, J.W., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1989, Final revised analyses of major and trace elements from acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California and Nevada, October 1981 to October 1982: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4138, 46 p.

Ball, J.W., and Nordstrom, D.K., 1985, Major and trace-element analysis of acid mine waters in the Leviathan mine drainage basin, California and Nevada--October 1981 to October 1982: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4169, 46 p.

Ball, J.W., Runkel, R.L., and Nordstrom, D.K., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 12. Geochemical and reactive-transport modeling based on tracer injection-synoptic sampling studies for the Red river, New Mexico, 2001-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5149, 78 p.

Bergholm, A., 1995, Oxidation of pyrite, in Nordstrom, D.K., DeMonge, J.M., and Lovgren, L., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-389, p. 20.

Besser, J.M., Kunz, J.L., Cox, S.E., Ingersoll, C.G., and Brumbaugh, W.G., 2017, Physical, chemical and bioasssay data from an evaluation of metal-contaminated sediments and pore water from the Upper Columbia River, Washington, 2013-2014: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Beyer, W.N., Gramlich, E., and Nichols, J., 2017, Exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to lead and cadmium in the southeast Missouri lead mining district: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Boughton, G.K., 2001, Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming--A retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4170, 68 p.

Boughton, G.K., Dodge, K.A., Hornberger, M.I., and Turner, M.A., 2018, Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2015 through September 2016) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Bove, D.J., Lowers, H.A., Plumlee, G.S., and Verplanck, P.L., 2008, In-situ acid weathering reactions in areas affected by large-scale and pervasive hydrothermal alteration in the Southern Rocky Mountains (Chapter C), in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 2008-1328, p. 14-17.

Briggs, P.H., Sutley, S.J., and Livo, K.E., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground water investigation. 11. Geochemistry of composited material from alteration scars and mine-waste piles: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-458, 17 p.

Broshears, R.E., Bencala, K.E., Kimball, B.A., and McKnight, D.M., 1992, Tracer-dilution experiments and solute-transport simulations for a mountain streams, Saint Kevin Gulch, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4081, 18 p.

Brown, J.G., 1990, Chemical, geologic, and hydrologic data from the study of acidic contamination in the Miami Wash-Pinal Creek area, Arizona, water years 1988-89: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-395, 75 p.

Brown, J.G., and Eychaner, J.H., 1996, Distribution of chemical constituents in surface water, Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Brown, J.G., and Favor, B., eds., Hydrology and geochemistry of aquifer and stream contamination related to acidic water in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2466, p. 61-80.

Brown, J.G., and Eychaner, J.H., 1996, Research of acidic contamination of ground water and surface water, Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Brown, J.G., and Favor, B., eds., Hydrology and geochemistry of aquifer and stream contamination related to acidic water in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2466, p. 1-20.

Brown, J.G., and Favor, B., eds., 1996, Hydrology and geochemistry of aquifer and stream contamination related to acidic water in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2466, 103 p.

Cain, D.J., Carter, J.L., Fend, S.V., Luoma, S.N., Alpers, C.N., and Taylor, H.E., 1998, Metal exposure to a benthic invertebrate, Hydropsyche california, in the Sacramento River downstream of Keswick Reservoir, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-654, 26 p.

Caine, J.S., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 6. Preliminary brittle structural geologic data, Questa mining district, southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-280, 24 p.

Caine, J.S., Manning, A.H., Philip L. Verplanck, Bove, D.J., Kahn, K.G., and Ge, S., 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado--An alpine watershed affected by metalliferous hydrothermal alteration (Chapter I), in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 2008-1328, p. 50-57.

Caldwell, R.R., Nimick, D.A., and DeVaney, R.M., 2014, Occurrence and hydrochemistry of radiochemical constituents in groundwater of Jefferson County and surrounding areas, southwestern Montana, 2007 through 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5235, 61 p.

Cannon, M.R., Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., McDougal, R.R., Smith, B.D., and Nimick, D.A., 2004, Understanding trace-element sources and transport to upper Basin Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye and Enterprise Mines, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-E1, p. 401-455.

Choate, L.M., Ranville, J.F., Blumenstein, E.P., and Smith, K.S., 2008, Simple screening tests to determine the potential metal toxicity of mining-waste leachates (Chapter E), in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 2008-1328, p. 24-27.

Church, S.E., 2000, Preliminary release of scientific reports on the acidic drainage in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-034, 116 p.

Church, S.E., Fey, D.L., and Marot, M.E., 2005, Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico [Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation 8]: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5006, 47 p.

Church, S.E., Kimball, B.A., Fey, D.L., Ferderer, D.A., Yager, T.J., and Vaughn, R.B., 1997, Source, transport, and partitioning of metals between water, colloids, and bed sediments of the Animas River, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-151, 1-135 p.

Church, S.E., Nimick, D.A., Finger, S.E., and O'Neill, J.M., 2004, The Boulder River watershed study, Jefferson County, Montana, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-B, p. 13-28.

Church, S.E., Unruh, D.M., Fey, D.L., and Sole, T.C., 2004, Trace elements and lead isotopes in streambed sediment in streams affected by historical mining, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-D8, p. 279-335.

Church, S.E., Von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., Eds, 2007, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the animas river watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, 1096 p (2 volumes).

Cleasby, T.E., and Nimick, D.A., 2002, Metal concentrations and sources in the Miller Creek watershed, Park County, Montana, August 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4148, 32 p.

Cleasby, T.E., and Nimick, D.A., 2002, Streamflow, water quality, and quantification of metal loading in the upper Tenmile Creek watershed, Lewis and Clark County, west-central Montana, September 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4072, 64 p.

Cleasby, T.E., Nimick, D.A., and Kimball, B.A., 2000, Quantification of metal loads by tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling methods in Cataract Creek, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4237, 39 p.

Cleasby, T.E., Thamke, J.N., and Nimick, D.A., 2003, Arsenic and metal loads and source areas in the Middle Fork Warm Springs Creek watershed, Jefferson County, Montana, June 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4153, 33 p.

Cleveland, D., and Hinck, J., 2018, Results from radiochemical analyses of small rodent whole bodies collected from breccia pipe uranium mines and reference locations in the Grand Canyon watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Cleveland, D., and Hinck, J.E., 2018, Chemistry data for assessment of the containment pond at Canyon Mine, Arizona 2017: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Cleveland, D.M., and Allert, A.L., 2018, Chemistry data for assessment of crayfish from Madison County, Missouri lead mines 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

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McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Steiger, J.I., Kimball, B.A., and Verplanck, P.L., 2003, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 2. Low-flow (2001) and snowmelt (2002) synoptic/tracer water chemistry for the Red River, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-148, 166 p.

McDougal, R.R., Cannon, M.R., Smith, B.D., and Ruppert, D.A., 2004, Hydrogeology of the Boulder River watershed study area and examination of the regional ground-water flow system using interpreted fracture mapping from remote sensing data, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-D9, p. 337-368.

McDougal, R.R., and Smith, B.D., 2000, Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-371, 16 p.

Morman, S.A., Van Gosen, B.S., and Plumlee, G.S., 2017, In vitro bioaccessibility extractions from previously collected uranium mineral deposit samples, 1971 and 1981, southwestern U.S: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Myhre, S.H., and Bencala, K.E., 1998, Surface-water quality data--Permanante and Saratoga Creeks, Santa Clara Valley, California, water year 1997: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-4, 39 p.

Naftz, D.L., Fuller, C.C., Runkel, R.L., Byrne, P.A., Briggs, M.A., Solder, J., Gardner, W.P., Cain, D.J., Short, T.M., and Goble, D., 2019, Hydrologic, biogeochemical, and radon data collected within and adjacent to the Little Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming (Ver. 1.1, January 2019): U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (First published 2018-02-12. Revision 2019-01-30).

Naftz, D.L., Walton-Day, K., Gardner, W.P., Duniway, M.C., and Bills, D.J., 2018, Radon data and time-lapse photos collected outside the Pinenut uranium mine, Arizona, 2015-16: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Naus, C.A., McCleskey, R.B., Nordstrom, D.K., Donohoe, L.C., Paillet, F., and Verplanck, P.L., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water chemistry in the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-2003: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5088, 220 p.

Neaville, C.C., and Brown, J.G., 1994, Hydrogeology and hydrologic system of Pinal Creek basin, Gila County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4212, 33 p.

Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., 2004, Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652, 523 p.

Nimick, D.A., and Cleasby, T.E., 2004, Trace elements in water in streams affected by historical mining, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-D5, p. 155-190.

Nimick, D.A., and Cleasby, T.E., 2001, Quantification of metal loads by tracer injection and synoptic sampling in Daisy Creek and the Stillwater River, Park County, Montana, August 1999: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4261, 51 p.

Nimick, D.A., and Cleasby, T.E., 2000, Water-quality data for streams in the Boulder River Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative study area: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-99, 70 p.

Nimick, D.A., and von Guerard, P., 1998, Science for watershed decisions on abandoned mine lands--review of preliminary results, Denver, Colorado, February 4-5, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-297, 71 p.

Nordstrom, D.K., 2008, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation---25--Summary of results and baseline and pre-mining ground-water geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1728, 111 p.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1997, Videotape lecture--Negative pH, ultra-acidic mine waters and the challenge of environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-355.

Nordstrom, D.K., 1985, The rate of ferrous iron oxidation in a stream receiving acid mine effluent, in Subitzky, S., ed., Selected papers in the hydrological sciences, 1985: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2270, p. 113-119.

Nordstrom, D.K., McCleskey, R.B., Hunt, A.G., and Naus, C.A., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5050, 94 p.

Nordstrom, D.K., Wright, W.G., Mast, M.A., Bove, D.J., and Rye, R.O., 2007, Aqueous-sulfate stable isotopes--A study of mining-affected and undisturbed acidic drainage (Chapter E8), in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P.B., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, v. 1, p. 387-416.

O'Neill, J.M., Lund, K., Van Gosen, B.S., Desborough, G.A., Sole, T.C., and DeWitt, E.H., 2004, Geologic framework, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-D1, p. 49-88.

Ortiz, R.F., and Ball, J.W., 2003, Summary of synoptic sampling and tracer-injection tests in the Alamosa River basin during high-flow conditions, June 1999--A sampling analysis report for modeling reactive transport of metals for the Summitville Mine, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-467, 60 p.

Ortiz, R.F., and Ball, J.W., 2003, Summary of synoptic sampling and tracer-injection tests in the Alamosa River Basin during low-flow conditions, October 1998--A sampling analysis report for modeling reactive transport of metals for the Summitville Mine: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-466, 55 p.

Ortiz, R.F., and Bencala, K.E., 2001, Determination of instream metal loads using tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling techniques in Wightman Fork, southwestern Colorado, September 1997: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4154, 26 p.

Parkhurst, D.L., 1987, Chemical analyses of water samples from the Picher mining area, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-453, 43 p.

Parkhurst, D.L., Doughten, M., and Hearn, P., 1989, Chemical analyses of stream sediment in the Tar Creek Basin of the Picher mining areas, northeast Oklahoma: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-469, 13 p.

Paschke, S.S., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2005, Quantification and simulation of metal loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5054, 73 p.

Paschke, S.S., Runkel, R.L., Walton-Day, K., Kimball, B.A., and Schaffrath, K.R., 2013, Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5280, 108 p.

Piper, D.Z., Skorupa, J.P., Presser, T.S., Hardy, S.J., Hamilton, M.A., Huebner, M.A., and Gulbrandsen, R.A., 2000, The Phosphoria Formation at the Hot Springs Mine in southeast Idaho--A source of trace elements to ground water, surface water, and biota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-050, 73 p.

Plumlee, G.S., and Edelmann, P., 1995, The Summitville mine and its downstream effects: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-23 (On-line update).

Plumlee, G.S., Ficklin, W.H., Montour, M., Smith, K.S., Meier, A.L., and Briggs, P.H., 1994, The geochemistry and environmental degradation of cyanide at the Summitville Mine, Colorado, in Carter, L.M.H., Toth, M.I., and Day, W.C., eds., USGS research on mineral resources--1994: Part A--Program and abstracts, Ninth V.E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, Tucson, Arizona, February 22-25, 1994: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1103-A, p. 77-78.

Plumlee, G.S., Ficklin, W.H., Smith, K.S., Montour, M., Gray, J., Hageman, P., Briggs, P.H., and Meier, A.L., 1994, Geologic and geochemical controls on the composition of acid waters draining the Summitville Mine, Colorado, in Carter, L.M.H., Toth, M.I., and Day, W.C., eds., USGS research on mineral resources--1994: Part A--Program and abstracts, Ninth V.E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, Tucson, Arizona, February 22-25, 1994: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1103-A, p. 78.

Plumlee, G.S., Lowers, H., Koenig, A., and Ludington, S., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality invistigation. 13. Mineral microscopy and chemistry of mined and unmined porphyry molybdenum mineralization along the Red River, New Mexico--Implications for ground- and surface-water quality: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1442.

Plumlee, G.S., Smith, K.S., and Montour, M.R., 1996, Compositions and metal loadings from several seeps at the Summitville Mine--Preliminary results of sampling in August, 1995, and comparison to August, 1994, results: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-049, 6 p.

Powers, M.H., and Burton, B.L., 2004, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 1. Depth to bedrock determinations using shallow seismic data acquired in the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1236, 18 p.

Puglis, H.J., Calfee, R.D., and Little, E.E., 2018, Behavioral effects of copper on larval white sturgeon--Data: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Puls, R.W., Powell, R.M., and Clark, D.A., 1996, Assessment of colloidal transport in ground water, Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Brown, J.G., and Favor, B., eds., Hydrology and geochemistry of aquifer and stream contamination related to acidic water in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2466, p. 51-60.

Rich, C.L., Litke, D.W., Granitto, M., Pelltier, R.T., and Sole, T.C., 2004, Digital databases and CD-ROM for the Boulder River watershed, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-G, p. 503-523.

Runkel, R.L., 2010, One-dimensional transport with equilibrium chemistry (OTEQ)--A reactive transport model for streams and rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods book 6, chapter B6, 102 p.

Runkel, R.L., 1998, One dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS)--A solute transport model for streams and rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4018, 73 p.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Steiger, J.I., and Walton-Day, K., 2009, Geochemical data for upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, under existing ambient conditions and during an experimental pH modification, August 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 442, 41 p.

Runkel, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Walton-Day, K., and Verplanck, P.L., 2005, Geochemistry of Red Mountain Creek, Colorado, under low-flow conditions, August 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5101, 78 p.

Runkel, R.L., and McCleskey, R.B., 2018, Minnesota Mine Shaft tracer data, Lion Creek Watershed near Empire, Colorado, July-November, 2017: U. S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Runkel, R.L., Verplanck, P.L., McCleskey, R.B., Walton-Day, K., and Byrne, P., 2019, Synoptic sampling data from Illinois Gulch and Iron Springs near Breckenridge, Colorado, August 2016 and September 2017: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Rye, R.O., and Alpers, C.N., 1997, The stable isotope geochemistry of jarosite: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-88, 44 p.

Schemel, L.E., and Cox, M.H., 2005, Descriptions of the Animas River-Cement Creek confluence and mixing zone near Silverton, Colorado, during the late summers of 1996 and 1997: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1064, 4 p (Online only).

Schmidt, T.S., Rogers, H.A., Hladik, M.L., Dabney, B.L., Mahler, B.J., and Van Metre, P.C., 2016, Bifenthrin causes trophic cascade and altered insect emergences in mesocosms--Implications for small streams: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Schmitt, C.J., and McKee, M.J., 2016, Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Smith, B.D., McDougal, R.R., and Lund, K., 2004, Geologic, geophysical, and seismic characterization of the Luttrell Pit as a mine-waste repository, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-E3, p. 475-494.

Smith, B.D., and Sole, T., 2000, Schlumberger DC resistivity soundings in the Boulder watershed, Jefferson and Lewis and Clark Counties, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-110, 31 p.

Smith, J.D., Lambing, J.H., Nimick, D.A., Parret, C., Ramey, M., and Schafer, W., 1998, Geomorphology, flood-plain tailings, and metal transport in the Upper Clark Fork Valley, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4170, 56 p.

Smith, K.S., Ficklin, W.H., and Ranville, J.F., 1990, Examples and modeling of trace metal water/sediment partitioning in Colorado streams affected by acid mine drainage, in Gough, L.P., ed., Environmental forum 1990--Geoscience investigations that emphasize chemical, physical, and biological ecosystem processes: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-288, p. 12.

Snyder, N.P., Allen, J.R., Dare, C., Hampton, M.A., Schneider, G., Wooley, R.J., Alpers, C.N., and Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., 2004, Sediment grain-size and loss-on-ignition analyses from 2002 Englebright Lake coring and sampling campaigns: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1080, 46 p.

Stollenwerk, K.G., 1996, Simulation of reactions affecting transport of constituents in the acidic plume, Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona, in Brown, J.G., and Favor, B., eds., Hydrology and geochemistry of aquifer and stream contamination related to acidic water in Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2466, p. 21-50.

Swayze, G.A., Desborough, G.A., Smith, K.S., Heather A. Lowers, Hammarstrom, J.M., Diehl, S.F., Leinz, R.W., and Driscoll, R.L., 2008, Understanding jarosite--From mine waste to Mars (Chapter B), in Verplanck, P.L., ed., Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 2008-1328, p. 8-13.

Taylor, H.E., Antweiler, R.C., Alpers, C.N., Roth, D.A., Brinton, T.I., Cain, D.J., Ball, J.W., Unruh, D.M., and Dileanis, P.D., 2000, Quality assurance and quality control, in Alpers, C.N., Taylor, H.E., and Domagalski, J.J., eds., Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97--Volume 1. Methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4286, p. 38-61.

Terry, N., and Briggs, M.A., 2019, Geophysical data collected within and adjacent to the Little Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Thamke, J.N., Wotan, T.R., Cleasby, T.E., and Nimick, D.A., 2002, Arsenic loads and source areas in and along Bear Creek, Park County, Montana, September 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4074, 25 p.

Topping, B.R., Kuwabara, J.S., Marvin-DiPasquale, M.C., Agee, J.L., Kieu, L.H., Flanders, J.R., Parchaso, F., Hager, S.W., Lopez, C.B., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2004, Sediment remobilization of mercury in south San Francisco Bay, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5196, 57 p.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2004, Summary and conclusions from investigation of the effects of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana, in Nimick, D.A., Church, S.E., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the basin and Boulder Mining Districts, Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1652-A, p. 1-12.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, Interim report on the scientific investigations in the Animas River watershed, Colorado to facilitate remediation decisions by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service, March 29, 2000 meeting, Denver, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-245, 34 p.

Unruh, D.M., Fey, D.L., and Church, S.E., 2000, Chemical data and lead isotopic compositions of geochemical baseline samples from streambed sediments and smelter slag, lead isotopic compositions in fluvial tailings, and dendrochronology results from the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-038, 75 p.

Van Gosen, B.S., 2016, Element concentrations in surface soils of the Coconino Plateau, Grand Canyon region, Coconino County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1160.

Van Gosen, B.S., Johnson, M.R., and Goldman, M.A., 2016, Three GIS datasets defining areas permissive for the occurrence of uranium-bearing, solution-collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona and southeast Utah: U. S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Verplanck, P.L., Manning, A.H., Graves, J.T., McCleskey, R.B., Todorov, T., and Lamothe, P.J., 2009, Geochemistry of standard mine waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1292, 21 p.

Verplanck, P.L., Manning, A.H., Kimball, B.A., McCleskey, R.B., Runkel, R.L., Caine, J.S., Adams, M., Gemery-Hill, P.A., and Fey, D.L., 2008, Ground- and surface-water chemistry of Handcart Gulch, Park County, Colorado, 2003-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1020, 31 p.

Verplanck, P.L., Manning, A.H., Kimball, B.K., McCleskey, R.B., Runkel, R.L., Caine, J.S., Adams, M., Gemery-Hill, P.A., and Fey, D.L., 2007, Ground- and surface-water chemistry of Handcart Gulch, Park County, Colorado, 2003-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1020, 31 p.

Verplanck, P.L., Nordstrom, D.K., and McCleskey, R.B., 2005, Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 20. Water chemistry trends of the Red River, Taos County, New Mexico, with data from selected seeps, tributaries, and snow, 2000-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5028.

Verplanck, P.L., Unruh, D.M., and Fey, D.L., 2001, Evaluation of strontium isotopes as a geochemical tracer in the Middle Fork Mineral Creek basin, southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4290, 21 p.

Verplanck, P.L., ed., 2008, Understanding contaminants associated with mineral deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 2008-1328, 96 p.

Walton-Day, K., 1996, Colorado wetland resources, in National water summary 1992-1993--Hydrologic events and wetland resources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2425, p. 135-140.

Walton-Day, K., Bern, C.R., Naftz, D.L., Gross, T.A., and and O'Shea, P.M., 2019, Surface materials data from breccia-pipe uranium mine and reference sites, Arizona, USA: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Walton-Day, K., Flynn, J.L., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2005, Mass loading of selected major and trace elements in Lake Fork Creek near Leadville, Colorado, September-October 2001: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5151, 46 p.

Walton-Day, K., Healy, R.W., and Smith, B., 2006, Assessment of remediation of fluvial tailings deposits in the upper Arkansas River Basin, Lake County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report, 97 p.

Walton-Day, K., Ortiz, R.F., and von Guerard, P.B., 1995, Water-transport--A powerful way to move metals, in King, T.V.V., ed., Environmental considerations of active and abandoned mine lands--Lessons from Summitville: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2220, p. 20-23.

Walton-Day, K., Paschke, S.S., Runkel, R.L., and Kimball, B.A., 2007, Using the OTIS solute-transport model to evaluate remediation scenarios in Cement Creek and the Upper Animas River (Chapter E24), in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, v. 2, p. 973-1028.

Walton-Day, K., Rossi, F.J., Gerner, L.J., Evans, J.B., Yager, T.J., Ranville, J.F., and Smith, K.S., 2000, Effects of fluvial tailings deposits on soils and surface- and ground-water quality, and implications for remediation--Upper Arkansas River, Colorado, 1992-1996: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4273, 100 p.

Wentz, D.A., Bonn, B.A., Carpenter, K.D., Hinkle, S.R., Janet, M.L., Rinella, F.A., Uhrich, M.A., Waite, L.R., Laenen, A., and Bencala, K.E., 1998, Water quality in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, 1991-95: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1161, 34 p.

Wesner, J.S., Walters, D.M., Schmidt, T.S., Kraus, J.M., Stricker, C.A., and Clements, W.H., 2017, Zinc concentrations and isotopic signatures of an aquatic insect (mayfly, Baetis tricaudatus): U.S. Geological Survey Data Release.

Wetherbee, G.A., Kimball, B.A., and Maura, W.S., 1991, Selected hydrologic data for the upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado, 1986-89: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-528, 216 p.

Winter, T.C., Harvey, J.W., Franke, O.L., and Alley, W.A., 1998, Ground water and surface water, a single resource: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1139, 74 p.

Wirt, L., Leib, K.J., Bove, D.J., Mast, M.A., Evans, J.B., and , and Meeker, G.P., 1999, Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas watershed, southwestern Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-159, 32 p.

Wright, W.G., Kimball, B.A., and Runkel, R.L., 2007, Effects of the May Day Mine site on stream-water quality in the Cement Creek Basin, August 2000, in Church, S.E., von Guerard, P., and Finger, S.E., eds., Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1651, v. 2, p. 943-972.

Yager, D.B., Church, S.E., Verplanck, P.L., and Wirt, L., 2003, Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2406.

Yager, D.B., Mast, M.A., Verplanck, P.L., Bove, D.J., Wright, W.G., and Hageman, P.L., 2000, Natural versus mining-related water quality degradation to tributaries draining Mount Moly, Silverton, Colorado, in Church, S.E., ed., Preliminary release of scientific reports on the acid drainage in the Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-34, p. 99-111.

Web Pages

Briggs, M., and Buxton, H.T., 2014, Improved approach for quantifying subsurface contamination: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/27/2015, 2015

Cain, D.J., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2013, Mineral particles are a source of dietary metal in streams: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Campbell, K.M., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2013, Improving subsurface uranium cleanup methods: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Croteau, M.-N., Fuller, C.C., and Lee, K.E., 2016, Study reveals processes that control uranium bioavailability in a freshwater snail--Relevance to aquatic biota in the Grand Canyon area: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 09/01/2016, 2016

Kraus, J.M., and Reilly, T.J., 2017, Fish diets switch from aquatic to terrestrial insects in streams effected by metal contamination: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 02/28/2017, 2017

Nimick, D.A., Balistrieri, L.S., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2012, New approach for evaluating fish metal toxicity: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Nimick, D.A., Buxton, H.T., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2010, Tools to define pre-mining water-quality restoration targets: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/27/2015, 2015

Nimick, D.A., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2011, Chemical Geology highlights importance of diel processes in rivers and lakes: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Runkel, R.L., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2013, Estimating the uncertainty of contaminant loads in mined watersheds: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016

Tillman, F.D., Hinck, J.E., Van Gosen, B.S., and Walton-Day, K., 2016, Informing future decision making on uranium mining in Arizona--Science for health and environment: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 11/2/2018, 2018

Walton-Day, K., Naftz, D., and Lee, K.E., 2016, U.S. Geological Survey develops approach to assess baseline chemical and radiological conditions prior to uranium mining near Grand Canyon National Park: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 03/25/2016, 2016

Walton-Day, K., Runkel, R.L., and Morganwalp, D.W., 2012, Evaluating acid mine drainage cleanup strategies: U.S. Geological Survey, access date 10/20/2016, 2016


There are 944 publications in this section of the bibliography. The above list is sorted by publication type. There are 67 Books and Book Chapters, 226 Conference Proceedings Papers, 12 Fact Sheets, 350 Journal Articles, 3 Newsletter and Magazine Articles, 3 News Releases, 16 Reports (non-USGS)s, 26 Student Theses/Dissertations, 229 Reports (USGS)s, and 12 Web Pages in this section of the bibliography. The USGS Environmental Health Mission Area Bibliographic Data Base was last updated on 12/31/19.

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