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Environmental Health - Toxic Substances

Toxics Program Remediation Activities

Solvent Plume Source Removal Test (Fenton's Reagent)

Type
  • Testing of Remediation Technologies
  • Performance Monitoring
Location Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia
Partners
Technology
Contaminants Perchloroethylene (PCE)
Description
Concentrations of vinyl chloride in the Kings Bay, Georgia, plume, November 1998. Vinyl chloride is a very toxic byproduct of the incomplete degradation of perchloroethylene (from USGS Circular 1303)
Concentrations of vinyl chloride in the Kings Bay, Georgia, plume, November 1998. Vinyl chloride is a very toxic byproduct of the incomplete degradation of perchloroethylene (from USGS Circular 1303)
(Click on image for larger version)
Remediation of a plume of perchloroethylene (PCE) at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia, has been achieved by combining source-area removal and natural attenuation. PCE in the source area, an old landfill, was removed by in-situ chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent. Fenton's reagent was injected into the subsurface through an array of injection wells. USGS scientists estimate that the plume will diminish to below regulatory thresholds in less than 5 years. This technology has reduced the time to remediate the site from 35 years (with the previous pump-and-treat system) to approximately 5 years. This, in turn, has lowered lifetime remediation costs at the site from $30 million to approximately $5 million.

USGS involvement with the Fenton's injection test at Kings Bay was to:

  • locate the source area with direct-push technology and field gas chromatography methods,
  • determine the source-area contaminant concentration that could remain after the Fenton's test, based on the natural attenuation capacity of the system, and
  • monitor the microbial population at the site before, during, and after Fenton's treatment to observe how contaminant degradation was affected by the treatment.

Water-quality monitoring data from the landfill site are being used to evaluate the ability of the Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) package to estimate cleanup times associated with combining the remediation of a contaminant source-area with using Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to remediate the remaining downgradient contaminant plume. This site is one of eight demonstration sites that make up a diverse set of geologic, hydraulic, and geochemical environments. The evaluation is being conducted by the U.S. Navy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with funding from the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP).

USGS scientist examining an outcrop of organic-rich sediment that drives sustainable natural attenuation of a chlorinated-solvents plume in the ground-water system underlying Kings Bay, GA
USGS scientist examining an outcrop of organic-rich sediment that drives sustainable natural attenuation of a chlorinated-solvents plume in the ground-water system underlying Kings Bay, GA
(Click on image for larger version)

This site was also featured as a case study in A framework for assessing the sustainability of monitored natural attenuation: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1303. The framework presents methods to assess the sustainability of natural attenuation at toxic waste cleanup sites, such as the Kings Bay site. The framework provides environmental planners and managers with a quantitative framework for insuring the sustainability of natural attenuation when it is used as a component of waste management strategies.

More Information
Contact Frank Chapelle, South Carolina Water Science Center, Columbia, SC,
Publications

Chapelle, Frank, Bradley, Paul, and Casey, Clifton, 2004, Accelerated cleanup follows Fenton's ISCO and substrate addition: Technology News and Trends, EPA Technology Innovation Program online newsletter, December 2004.

Chapelle, F.H., and Bradley, P.M., 1998, Selecting remediation goals by assessing the natural attenuation capacity of ground-water systems: Bioremediation Journal, v. 2, no. 3-4, p. 227-238.

Chapelle, F.H., and Bradley, P.M., 1999, Selecting remediation goals by assessing the natural attenuation capacity of ground-water systems, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999--Volume 3 of 3--Subsurface Contamination from Point Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C, p. 7-19.

Chapelle, F.H., Novak, J.T., Parker, J.C., Campbell, B.G., and Widdowson, M.A., 2007, A framework for assessing the sustainability of monitored natural attenuation: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1303, 46 p.

Links

Other Toxics Program In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Projects

Other USGS In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Projects

Toxics Program Landfill Remediation Projects

Other USGS Landfill Remediation Studies

Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) Information

Back to Toxics Program Remediation Activities Index

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Page Last Modified: Tuesday, 30-Jul-2013 12:24:35 EDT