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U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TOXIC SUBSTANCES HYDROLOGY PROGRAM--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999


U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018C Volume 3 of 3

CONTENTS

Cover

Preface

Introduction, page 1

Acknowledgments, page 2

VOLUME 3 - SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION FROM POINT SOURCES

KEYNOTE PAPERS

Scale considerations of chlorinated solvent source zones and contaminant fluxes: Insights from detailed field studies by B.L. Parker and J.A. Cherry, page 3

Selecting remediation goals by assessing the natural attenuation capacity of ground-water systems by F.H. Chapelle and P.M. Bradley, page 7

Sampling throughout the hydrologic cycle to characterize sources of volatile organic compounds in ground water by A.L. Baehr, L.J. Kauffman, E.G. Charles, R.J. Baker, P.E. Stackelberg, M.A. Ayers, and O.S. Zapecza, page 21

Capabilities and challenges of natural attenuation in the subsurface: Lessons from the U.S. Geological Survey Toxics Substances Hydrology Program by B.A. Bekins, A.L. Baehr, I.M. Cozzarelli, H.I. Essaid, S.K. Haack, R.W. Harvey, A.M. Shapiro, J.A. Smith, and R.L. Smith, page 37

SECTION A-Processes that Control the Natural Attenuation of Hydrocarbons and Fuel Oxygenates at Gasoline Release Sites, page 57

Fate of MTBE relative to benzene in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer (1993-98) by J.E. Landmeyer, P.M. Bradley, and F.H. Chapelle, page 59

Mass transport of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) across the water table and significance for natural-attenuation remediation at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina by M.A. Lahvis, R.J. Baker, and A.L. Baehr, page 75

Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and t-butanol by stream-bed-sediment microorganisms by P.M. Bradley, J.E. Landmeyer, and F.H. Chapelle, page 87

Effects of environmental conditions on MTBE degradation in model column aquifers by C.D. Church, P.G. Tratnyek, J.F. Pankow, J.E. Landmeyer, A.L. Baehr, M.A. Thomas, and Mario Schirmer, page 93

Equilibrium vapor method to determine the concentration of inorganic carbon and other compounds in water samples by R.J. Baker, A.L. Baehr, and M.A. Lahvis, page 103

Transport of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and hydrocarbons to ground water from gasoline spills in the unsaturated zone by M.A. Lahvis and A.L. Baehr, page 113

SECTION B-Ground Water Contamination by Crude Oil, page 121

Long-term geochemical evolution of a crude-oil plume at Bemidji, Minnesota by I.M. Cozzarelli, M.J. Baedecker, R.P. Eganhouse, M.E. Tuccillo, B.A. Bekins, G.R. Aiken, and J.B. Jaeschke, page 123

Chemical and physical controls on microbial populations in the Bemidji Toxics Site crude-oil plume by B.A. Bekins, I.M. Cozzarelli, E.M. Godsy, Ean Warren, M.E. Tuccillo, H.I. Essaid, and V.V. Paganelli, page 133

Long-term monitoring of unsaturated-zone properties to estimate recharge at the Bemidji crude-oil spill site by G.N. Delin and W.N. Herkelrath, page 143

Coupled biogeochemical modeling of ground-water contamination at the Bemidji, Minnesota, crude oil spill site by G.P. Curtis, I.M. Cozzarelli, M.J. Baedecker, and B.A. Bekins, page 153

Determining BTEX biodegradation rates using in situ microcosms at the Bemidji site, Minnesota: Trials and tribulations by E.M. Godsy, Ean Warren, I.M. Cozzarelli, B.A. Bekins, and R.P. Eganhouse, page 159

Mineralogy and mineral weathering: Fundamental components of subsurface microbial ecology by P.C. Bennett, J.R. Rogers, F.K. Hiebert, and W.J. Choi, page 169

Aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under Fe(III)-reducing conditions by R.T. Anderson, J.N. Rooney-Varga, C.V. Gaw, and D.R. Lovley, page 177

Electrical geophysics at the Bemidji Research Site by R.J. Bisdorf, page 187

Impacts of remediation at the Bemidji oil-spill site by W.N. Herkelrath, page 195

Ground penetrating radar research at the Bemidji, Minnesota, crude-oil spill site by J.E. Lucius, page 201

Investigating the potential for colloid- and organic matter-facilitated transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated ground water by J.N. Ryan, G.R. Aiken, D.A. Backhus, K.G. Villholth, and C.M. Hawley, page 211

Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis by crude oil from Bemidji, Minnesota by Ean Warren, B.A. Bekins, and E.M. Godsy, page 223

Polar metabolites of crude oil by K.A. Thorn and G.R. Aiken, page 231

Patterns of microbial colonization on silicates by J.R. Rogers, P.C. Bennett, and F.K. Hiebert, page 237

SECTION C-The Fate of Complex Contaminant Mixtures from Treated Wastewater Discharges, page 243

Natural restoration of a sewage plume in a sand and gravel aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by D.R. LeBlanc, K.M. Hess, D.B. Kent, R.L. Smith, L.B. Barber, K.G. Stollenwerk, and K.W. Campo, page 245

Evolution of a ground-water sewage plume after removal of the 60-year-long source, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Changes in the distribution of dissolved oxygen, boron, and organic carbon by L.B. Barber and S.H. Keefe, page 261

Evolution of a ground-water sewage plume after removal of a 60-year-long source, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Fate of volatile organic compounds by K.W. Campo and K.M. Hess, page 271

Evolution of a ground-water sewage plume after removal of the 60-year-long source, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Inorganic nitrogen species by R.L. Smith, B.A. Rea Kumler, T.R. Peacock, and D.N. Miller, page 285

Evolution of a ground-water sewage plume after removal of the 60-year-long source, Cape Cod, Massachusetts: pH and the fate of phosphate and metals by D.B. Kent and Valerie Maeder, page 293

Phosphorus transport in sewage-contaminated ground water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by D.A. Walter, D.R. LeBlanc, K.G. Stollenwerk, and K.W. Campo, page 305

In situ assessment of the transport and microbial consumption of oxygen in ground water, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by R.L. Smith, J.K. Böhlke, K.M. Revesz, Tadashi Yoshinari, P.B. Hatzinger, C.T. Penarrieta, and D.A. Repert, page 317

Stable isotope composition of dissolved O2 undergoing respiration in a ground-water contamination gradient by Kinga Révész, J.K. Böhlke, R.L. Smith, and Tadashi Yoshinari, page 323

Nitrification in a shallow, nitrogen-contaminated aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by D.N. Miller, R.L. Smith, and J.K. Böhlke, page 329

Recharge conditions and flow velocities of contaminated and uncontaminated ground waters at Cape Cod, Massachusetts: Evaluation of 2H/1H, 18O/16O, and dissolved gases by J.K. Böhlke, R.L. Smith, T.B. Coplen, Eurybiades Busenberg, and D.R. LeBlanc, page 337

Determination of temporal and spatial variability of hydraulic gradients in an unconfined aquifer using three-point triangulation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by T.D. McCobb, D.R. LeBlanc, and K.M. Hess, page 349

Modeling the influence of adsorption on the fate and transport of metals in shallow ground water: Zinc contamination in the sewage plume on Cape Cod, Massachusetts by D.B. Kent, R.H. Abrams, J.A. Davis, and J.A. Coston, page 361

Modeling the evolution and natural remediation of a ground-water sewage plume by K.G. Stollenwerk and D.L. Parkhurst, page 371

Multispecies reactive tracer test in an aquifer with spatially variable chemical conditions: An overview by J.A. Davis, D.B. Kent, J.A. Coston, K.M. Hess, and J.L. Joye, page 383

Multispecies reactive transport in an aquifer with spatially variable chemical conditions: Dispersion of bromide and nickel tracers by K.M. Hess, J.A. Davis, J.A. Coston, and D.B. Kent, page 393

Effect of growth conditions upon the subsurface transport behavior of a ground water protist by R.W. Harvey, N.A. Mayberry, N.E. Kinner, and D.W. Metge, page 405

Mobilization and transport of natural and synthetic colloids and a virus in an iron oxide-coated, sewage-contaminated aquifer by J.N. Ryan, Menachem Elimelech, R.A. Ard, and R.D. Magelky, page 411

Dual radioisotope labeling to monitor virus transport and identifying factors affecting viral inactivation in contaminated aquifer sediments from Cape Cod, Massachusetts by D.W. Metge, Theresa Navigato, J.E. Larson, J.N. Ryan, and R.W. Harvey, page 423

Installation of deep reactive walls at MMR using a granular iron-guar slurry by D.W. Hubble and R.W. Gillham, page 431

Monitoring a permeable reactive iron wall installation in unconsolidated sediments by using a cross-hole radar method by J.W. Lane, Jr., P.K. Joesten, and J.G. Savoie, page 439

Robowell: A reliable and accurate automated data-collection process applied to reactive-wall monitoring at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts by G.E. Granato and K.P. Smith, page 447

SECTION D-Factors and Processes that Affect Waste Disposal and Subsurface Transport of Contaminants in Arid Environments, page 457

Overview of research on water, gas, and radionuclide transport at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada by B.J. Andraski and D.A. Stonestrom, page 459

Isotopic composition of water in a deep unsaturated zone beside a radioactive-waste disposal area near Beatty, Nevada by D.A. Stonestrom, D.E. Prudic, and R.G. Striegl, page 467

Tritium and 14C concentrations in unsaturated-zone gases at test hole UZB-2, Amargosa Desert Research Site, 1994-98 by D.E. Prudic, R.G. Striegl, R.W. Healy, R.L. Michel, and Herbert Haas, page 475

Tritium in water vapor in the shallow unsaturated zone at the Amargosa Desert Research site by R.W. Healy, R.G. Striegl, R.L. Michel, D.E. Prudic, and B.J. Andraski, page 485

Soil respiration at the Amargosa Desert Research site by A.C. Riggs, R.G. Striegl, and F.B. Maestas, page 491

SECTION E-Geochemical and Microbiological Processes in Ground Water and Surface Water Affected by Municipal Landfill Leachate, page 499

Ground-water and surface-water hydrology of the Norman Landfill Research Site by Scott Christenson, M.A. Scholl, J.L. Schlottmann, and C.J. Becker, page 501

Identifying ground-water and evaporated surface-water interactions near a landfill using Deuterium, 18Oxygen, and Chloride, Norman, Oklahoma by J.L. Schlottmann, M.A. Scholl, and I.M. Cozzarelli, page 509

Biogeochemical processes in a contaminant plume downgradient from a landfill, Norman, Oklahoma by I.M. Cozzarelli, J.M. Suflita, G.A. Ulrich, S.H. Harris, M.A. Scholl, J.L. Schlottman, and J.B. Jaeschke, page 521

Evidence for natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds in the leachate plume of a municipal landfill near Norman, Oklahoma by R.P. Eganhouse, L.L. Matthews, I.M. Cozzarelli, and M.A. Scholl, page 531

Dominant terminal electron accepting processes occurring at a landfill leachate-impacted site as indicated by field and laboratory measures by S.H. Harris, G.A. Ulrich, and J.M. Suflita, page 541

Heterogeneous organic matter in a landfill aquifer material and its impact on contaminant sorption by H.K. Karapanagioti and D.A. Sabatini, page 549

Aquifer heterogeneity at the Norman, Oklahoma, landfill and its effect on observations of biodegradation processes by M.A. Scholl, I.M. Cozzarelli, S.C. Christenson, G.N. Breit, and J.L. Schlottmann, page 557

Hydraulic conductivity reductions resulting from clay dispersion within alluvial sediments impacted by sodium-rich water by L.J. King, H.W. Olsen, and G.N. Breit, page 569

Mapping the Norman, Oklahoma, landfill contaminant plume using electrical geophysics by R.J. Bisdorf and J.E. Lucius, page 579

Shallow-depth seismic refraction studies near the Norman, Oklahoma Landfill by M.H. Powers and W.B. Hasbrouck, page 585

SECTION F-Processes that Control the Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, page 591

Using molecular approaches to describe microbial populations at contaminated sites by S.K. Haack and L.A. Reynolds, page 593

Methane as a product of chloroethene biodegradation under methanogenic conditions by P.M. Bradley and F.H. Chapelle, page 601

Chlorinated ethenes from ground water in tree trunks by D.A. Vroblesky, C.T. Nietch, and J.T. Morris, page 607

Relative importance of natural attenuation processes in a trichloroethene plume and comparison to pump-and-treat remediation at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey by T.E. Imbrigiotta and T.A. Ehlke, page 615

Unsaturated-zone air flow at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey: Implications for natural remediation of the trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer by J.A. Smith, Whitney Katchmark, Jee-Won Choi, and F.D. Tillman, Jr., page 625

Evaluation of RNA hybridization to assess bacterial population dynamics at natural attenuation sites by L.A. Reynolds and S.K. Haack, page 635

Temporal variations in biogeochemical processes that influence ground-water redox zonation by J.T. McGuire, E.W. Smith, D.T. Long, D.W. Hyndman, S.K. Haack, J.J. Kolak, M.J. Klug, M.A. Velbel, and L.J. Forney, page 641

Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland by M.M. Lorah and L.D. Olsen, page 653

SECTION G-Research in Characterizing Fractured Rock Aquifers, page 667

Integrating multidisciplinary investigations in the characterization of fractured rock by A.M. Shapiro, P.A. Hsieh, and F.P. Haeni, page 669

Exchangeable ions, fracture volume, and specific surface area in fractured crystalline rocks by W.W. Wood, T.F. Kraemer, and Allen Shapiro, page 681

Geostatistical simulation of high-transmissivity zones at the Mirror Lake Site in New Hampshire: Conditioning to hydraulic information by F.D. Day-Lewis, P.A. Hsieh, A.M. Shapiro, and S.M. Gorelick, page 685

Microbial processes and down-hole mesocosms in two anaerobic fractured-rock aquifers by D.A. Vroblesky, P.M. Bradley, J.W. Lane, Jr., and J.F. Robertson, page 695

Bedrock geologic framework of the Mirror Lake research site, New Hampshire by W.C. Burton, T.R. Armstrong, and G.J. Walsh, page 705

Integrating surface and borehole geophysics--Examples based on electromagnetic sounding by F.L. Paillet and J.W. Lane, Jr., page 715

Geophysical reconnaissance in bedrock boreholes--Finding and characterizing the hydraulically active fractures by F.L. Paillet, page 725

Relation between seismic velocity and hydraulic conductivity at the USGS Fractured Rock Research Site by K.J. Ellefsen, P.A. Hsieh, and A.M. Shapiro, page 735

Borehole radar tomography using saline tracer injections to image fluid flow in fractured rock by J.W. Lane, Jr., D.L. Wright, and F.P. Haeni, page 747

Integration of surface geophysical methods for fracture detection in bedrock at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire by C.J. Powers, Kamini Singha, and F.P. Haeni, page 757

Characterizing fractures in a bedrock outcrop using ground-penetrating radar at Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire by M.L. Buursink and J.W. Lane, Jr., page 769

Computer simulation of fluid flow in fractured rocks at the Mirror Lake FSE well field by P.A. Hsieh, A.M. Shapiro, and C.R. Tiedeman, page 777

Analysis of an open-hole aquifer test in fractured crystalline rock by C.R. Tiedeman and P.A. Hsieh, page 783

Effects of lithology and fracture characteristics on hydraulic properties in crystalline rock: Mirror Lake research site, Grafton County, New Hampshire by C.D. Johnson, page 795

Characterizing recharge to wells in carbonate aquifers using environmental and artificially recharged tracers by E.A. Greene, page 803

CFC's in the unsaturated zone and in shallow ground water at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire by D.J. Goode, Eurybiades Busenberg, L.N. Plummer, A.M. Shapiro, and D.A. Vroblesky, page 809

Modifications to the solute-transport model MOC3D for simple reactions, double porosity, and age, with application at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, and other sites by D.J. Goode, page 821

Simulation of mass transport using the FracTran98 Module of FracSys2000 by D.M. Diodato, page 833

Borehole packers for in situ geophysical and microbial investigations in fractured rock by A.M. Shapiro, J.W. Lane, Jr., and J.R. Olimpio, page 841


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