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Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

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USGS Publications on Nutrients in the Mississippi River Basin and Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

2014

Pellerin, B.A., Bergamaschi, B.A., Gilliom, R.J., Crawford, C.G., Saraceno, J., Frederick, C.P., Downing, B.D., and Murphy, J.C., 2014, Mississippi River nitrate loads from high frequency sensor measurements and regression-based load estimation: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 48, no. 21, p. 12612-12619, doi:10.1021/es504029c.

2008

Christopher, S.F., Mitchell, M.J., McHale, M.R., Boyer, E.W., Burns, D.A., and Kendall, C., 2008, Factors controlling nitrogen release from two forested catchments with contrasting hydrochemical responses: Hydrologic Processes, v. 22, no. 1, p. 46-62, doi:10.1002/hyp.6632.

Green, C.T., Fisher, L.H., and Bekins, B.A., 2008, Nitrogen fluxes through unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings across the United States: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1,073-1,085, doi:10.2134/jeq2007.0010.

Green, C.T., Puckett, L.J., Böhlke, J.K., Bekins, B.A., Phillips, S.P., Kauffman, L.J., Denver, J.M., and Johnson, H.M., 2008, Limited occurrence of denitrification in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the United States: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 994-1,009, doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0419.

Hinkle, S.R., Böhlke, J.K., and Fisher, L.H., 2008, Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed (sand) filters: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, no. 1, p. 324-332, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.08.036.

Puckett, L.J., Zamora, C., Essaid, H., Wilson, J.T., Johnson, H.M., Brayton, M.J., and Vogel, J.R., 2008, Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 37, no. 3, p. 1,034-1,050, doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0550.

2007

Alexander, R.B., Boyer, E.W., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Moore, R.B., 2007, The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 43, no. 1, p. 41–59, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00005.x

Aulenbach, B.T., Buxton, H.T., Battaglin, W.A., and Coupe, R.H., 2007, Streamflow and nutrient fluxes of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin and subbasins for the period of record through 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1080.

Runkel, R.L., 2007, Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams: Limnology and Oceanography—Methods, v. 5, p. 50-62.

2006

Aulenbach, B.T., 2006, Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River Basins, 1968-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2006-1087, 16 p.

Bachman, R.W., Cloern, J.E., Hecky, R.E., and Schindler, D.W., 2006, Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems: Limnology and Oceanography, Speical Issue, v. 51, p. 351-800.

Leake, L., and Johnson, B., 2006, Taking the pulse of a river system—First 20 years: U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2006-3098.

Mueller, D.K. and Spahr, N.E., 2006, Nutrients in streams and rivers across the Nation — 1992-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5107, 51 p.

Osterman, L.E., Swarzenski, P.W. and Poore, R.Z., 2006, Gulf of Mexico dead zone—The last 150 years: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2006-3005, 2 p.

Rogala, J. T.; and Gray, B. R., 2006, Chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River system—Backwater lake effects and their associations with selected environmental predictors: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2006-1043.

Ruddy, B.C., Lorenz, D. L., and Mueller, D. K., 2006, County-level estimates of nutrient inputs to the land surface of the conterminous United States, 1982-2001: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5012, 17 p.

Scribner, E.A., Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Meyer, M.T., and Thurman, E.M., 2006, Concentrations of selected herbicides, herbicide degradation products, and nutrients in the lower Mississippi river, Louisiana, April 1991 through December 2003: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 165, 84 p.

Sheibley, R.W., Duff, J.H., Jackman, A.P., Triska, F.J., Warren, E., and Godsy, E.M., 2006, Nitrate reduction in sediment perfusion cores from Pool 8, upper Mississippi River, La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA: Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, v. 29, p. 1289-1295.

Swarzenski, P.W., Baskaran, Mark, Rosenbauer, R.J., and Orem, W.H., 2006, Historical trace element distribution in sediments from the Mississippi River Delta: Estuaries and Coasts, v. 29, no. 6B, p. 1094-1107.

Warren , E., Godsy, E.M., Duff, J.H., Triska, F.J., and Jackman, A.P., 2006, Nitrate reduction and microbial numbers in upper Mississippi River sediments, Pool 8, La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA: Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte limnologie, v. 29, p. 1578-1582.

2005

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., and Böhlke, J.-K., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois—II. Diel data, 1999-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1053, 114 p.

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., Böhlke, J.-K., and Dupre, D.H., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois—III. Biweekly data, 2000-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1197, 66 p.

Antweiler, R.C., Smith, R.L., Voytek, M.A., Böhlke, J.-K., and Richards, K.D., 2005, Water-quality data from two agricultural drainage basins in northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois—I. Lagrangian and synoptic data, 1999-2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1317, 206 p.

Hitt, K.J. and Nolan, B.T., 2005, Nitrate in ground water—Using a model to simulate the probability of nitrate contamination of shallow ground water in the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2881.

Lins, H.G., 2005, Streamflow trends in the United States from the National Streamflow Information Program: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3017, 3 p.

Milly, P.C.D., 2005, Trends in the water budget of the Mississippi River basin, 1949-1997: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2005-3020, 2 p.

Milly, P.C.D., Dunne, K.A., and Vecchia, A.V., 2005, Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate: Nature, v. 438, 347-350.

Morton, R.A., Bernier, J.C., Barras, J.A., and Ferina, N.F., 2005, Rapid subsidence and historical wetland loss in the Mississippi Delta Plain—Likely causes and future implications: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1216, 124 p.

Mueller, D.K., and Spahr, N.E., 2005, Water-quality, streamflow, and ancillary data for nutrients in streams and rivers across the Nation, 1992-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 152.

Mueller, David K. and Titus, Cindy J., 2005, Quality of nutrient data from streams and ground water sampled during water years 1992-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005.5106, 27 p.

Osterman, L.E., Poore, R.Z., Swarzenski, P.W., and Turner, R.E., 2005, Reconstructing a 180-yr record of natural and anthropogenic induced low-oxygen conditions from Louisiana continental shelf sediments: Geology, v. 33, no. 4, p. 329-332.

Puckett, L.J., and Hughes, W.B., 2005, Transport and fate of nitrate and pesticides—Hydrogeology and riparian zone processes: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 34, no. 6, p. 2278-2292.

Swarzenski, P.W., and Campbell, P., 2005, On the worldwide riverine transport of sediment-associated contaminants to the ocean, in Anderson, M.G., ed., Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences: Chichester, England, J. Wiley, v. 2, p. 1341-1358.

2004

Michel, R.L., 2004, Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River Valley: Hydrologic Processes, v. 18, no. 7, p. 1255-1269, doi:10.1002/hyp.1403.

Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2004, A Science strategy to support management decisions related to hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and excess nutrients in the Mississippi River Basin: Prepared by the Monitoring Modeling and Research Workgroup of the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1270, 58 p.

Puckett, L.J., 2004, Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones—Results from thirteen studies across the United States: Water Science and Technology, v. 49, no. 3, p. 47-53.

Richardson, W. B., Strauss, E. A., Monroe, E. M., Bartsch, L. A., Cavanaugh, J. C., Vingum, L., and Soballe, D., 2004, Denitrification in the Upper Mississippi River—Rates, controls, and contribution to nitrate flux: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 61, p. 1102–1112.

Strauss, E. A., Richardson, W. B., Bartsch, L. A., Cavanaugh, J. C., Brusewitz, D. A., Imker, H., Heinz, J. A., and Soballe, D. M., 2004, Nitrification in the Upper Mississippi River: patterns, controls, and contribution to the nitrate budget: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 14, p. 1–14.

Swarzenski, P.W., and Campbell, P.L., 2004, Tracking contaminants down the Mississippi: Geotimes, v. 49, no. 5 (May 2004), p. 40-41.

Ward, M. H., deKok, T.M., Levallois, P., Brender, J., Gulis, G., Nolan, B.T., and VanDerslice, J., 2005, Drinking-Water Nitrate and Health--Recent Findings and Research Needs: Environmental Health Perspectives, v. 113, no. 11, p. 1607-1614.

2003

Osterman, L.E., 2003, Benthic forminifera from the continental shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico—An indicator of shelf hypoxia: Estuary and Coastal Shelf Science, v. 58, p. 17-35.

Perez, B. C., Day, J. W., Dubravko, J., and Twilley, R. R., 2003, Nitrogen and phosphorus transport between Fourleague Bay, LA and the Gulf of Mexico—The role of winter cold fronts and Atchafalaya River discharge: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 57, no. 5-6, 1065-1078.

Rosenberry, D.O., Dean, W.E., Duff, J.H., LaBaugh, J.W., Reddy, M.M., Schuster, P.S., Striegl, R.G., Triska, F.J., and Winter, T.C., 2003, Exchange of water, solutes, and nutrients at the sediment-water interface affects a northern Minnesota watershed at multiple scales, in Proceedings of the First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Benson, Arizona, October 27-30, 2003: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, p. 468-473.

Sheibley, R.W., Duff, J.H., Jackman, A.P., and Triska, F.J., 2003, Inorganic nitrogen transformations in the bed of the Shingobee River, Minnesota—Integrating hydrologic and biological processes using sediment perfusion cores: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 48, no. 3, p. 1129-1140.

Sheibley, R.W., Jackman, A.P., Duff, J.H., and Triska, F.J., 2003, Numerical modeling of coupled nitrification-denitrification in sediment perfusion cores from the hyporheic zone of the Shingobee River, Minnesota: Advances in Water Resources, v. 26, no. 9, p. 977-987, doi: 10.1016/S0309-1708(03)00088-5.

Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., and Schwarz, G.E., 2003, Natural background concentrations of nutrients in streams and rivers of the conterminous United States: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 37, no. 14, p. 3039-3047.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2003, 100+ years of land change for southeast coastal Louisiana: U.S. Geological Survey NWRC 2003-02-0373 (map, one sheet).

2002

Alexander, Richard B., Johnes, Penny J., Boyer, Elizabeth W., and Smith, Richard A., 2002, A comparison of models for estimating the riverine export of nitrogen from large watersheds: Biogeochemistry, v. 57, no. 58, p. 295- 339.

Clark, G.M., Broshears, R.E., Hooper, R.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 2002, Evaluating the influence of source basins on downstream water quality in the Mississippi River: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 38, no. 3, p. 803-818.

Chang, C.C.Y., Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., Battaglin, W.A., and Campbell, D.H., 2002, Nitrate stable isotopes—Tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 59, no. 12, p. 1874-1885.

McIsaac, G.F., David, M.B., Gertner, G.Z., and Goolsby, D.A., 2002, Relating net nitrogen input in the Mississippi River Basin to nitrate flux in the Lower Mississippi River—A comparison of approaches: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 31, p. 1610-1622.

Nolan, B.T., and Hitt, K.J., 2002, Nutrients in shallow ground waters of beneath relatively undeveloped areas in the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4289, 17 p.

Nolan, B.T., Hitt, K.J., and Ruddy, B.C., 2002, Probability of nitrate contamination of recently recharged groundwaters in the conterminous United States: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 36, no. 10, p. 2138-2145.

Puckett, L.J., and Cowdery, T.K., 2002, Transport and fate of nitrate in a glacial outwash aquifer in relation to ground-water age, land use practices and redox processes: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 31, no. 3.

Puckett, L.J., Cowdery, T.K., McMahon, P.B., Tornes, L.H., and Stoner, J.D., 2002, Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 8.

Verstraeten, I.M., Böhlke, J.K., Kraemer, T.F., and Cannia, J., 2002, Use of environmental tracers and isotopes to evaluate sources of water, nitrate, and uranium in an irrigated alluvial valley, Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 100-01, 4 p.

2001

Battaglin, W.A., Furlong, E.T., and Burkhardt, M.R., 2001, Concentration of selected sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, and imadazolinone herbicides, other pesticides, and nutrients in 71 streams, 5 reservoir outflows, and 25 wells in the midwestern United States, 1998: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4225, 123 p.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001, Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1285-1300.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Chang, C.C.Y., Silva, S.R., and Campbell, D.H., 2001, Isotopic and chemical composition of inorganic and organic water-quality samples from the Mississippi River Basin, 1997-98: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4095, 57 p.

Cloern, J.E., 2001, Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v. 210, p. 223-253.

Day, J. W., Jr., Shaffer, G. P., Reed, D. J., Cahoon, D. R., Britsch, L. D., and Hawes, S. R., 2001, Patterns and processes of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana are complex—a reply to Turner, 2001, Estimating the indirect effects of hydrologic change on wetland loss—If the earth is curved, then how would we know it?: Estuaries, v. 24, no. 4, 647-651.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 2001, Long-term changes in concentrations and flux of nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, USA: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1209-1226.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 2001, Nitrogen input to the Gulf of Mexico: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 30, no. 2, p. 329-336.

Groschen, G.E., Harris, M.A., King, R.B., Terrio, P.J., and Warner, K.L., 2001, Water quality in the Lower Illinois River Basin, Illinois, 1995-98: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1209, 36 p.

Hooper, R.P., and Kelly, V.J., eds., 2001, Special Issue—Water Quality of Large US Rivers—Results from the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Stream Quality Accounting Network: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1085-1414.

Kelly, V.J., Hooper, R.P., Aulenbach, B.T., and Janet, M., 2001, Concentrations and annual fluxes for selected water-quality constituents from the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), 1996-2000: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4255.

Kendall. C., and Coplen, T.B., 2001, Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in river waters across the United States: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1363-1393.

Kendall, C., Silva, S.R., and Kelly, V.J., 2001, Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of particulate organic matter in four large river systems across the United States: Hydrological Processes, v. 15, no. 7, p. 1301-1346.

Koel, T. M., 2001, Classification of Upper Mississippi River pools based on contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats: Journal of Freshwater Ecology, v. 16, p. 159–170.

McIsaac, G. F., David, M.B., Gertner, G.Z., and Goolsby, D.A., 2001, Eutrophication—Nitrate flux in the Mississippi River: Nature, v. 414, p. 166-167.

Nolan, B.T., 2001, Relating nitrogen sources and aquifer susceptibility to nitrate in shallow ground waters of the United States: Ground Water, v. 39, no. 2, March-April 2001, p. 290-299.

Sigman, D.M., Casciotti, K.L., Andreani, M., Barford, C., Galanter, M., and Böhlke, J.K., 2001, A bacterial method for the nitrogen isotopic analysis of nitrate in seawater and freshwater: Analytical Chemistry, v. 73, no. 17, p. 4145-4153, doi: 10.1021/ac010088e.

Schwarz, G.E., Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., and Gray, J.R., 2001, A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S., in U.S. Subcommittee on Sedimentation, Proceedings of the Seventh Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference, Reno, Nevada, March 25-29, 2001: pp. VII-80-7.

Stacey, P.E., Greening, H., Kremer, J.N., Peterson, D., and Tomasko, D., 2001, Contributions of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to U.S. estuaries—Summary and conclusions, in Valigura, R.A., and others, eds., Nitrogen loading in coastal water bodies—An atmospheric perspective: American Geophysical Union, p. 187-226.

Swarzenski, P.W., 2001, Evaluating basin/shelf effects in the delivery of sediment-hosted contaminates in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River deltas—A new U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Project: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OFR 01-215, 4 pp.

Verstraeten, I.M., Steele, G.V., Böhlke, J.K., Kraemer, T.F., Wilson, K.E., and Carnes, A.E., 2001, Selected field and analytical methods and analytical results in the Dutch Flats area, western Nebraska, 1995-99: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-413, 53 p.

2000

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., 2000, Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico: Nature, v. 403, no. 6771, pp. 758-761.

Alexander, R.B., Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., Preston, S.D., Brakebill, J.W., Srinivasan, Raghavan, and Pacheco, P.A., 2000, Atmospheric nitrogen flux from the watersheds of major estuaries of the United States—An application of the SPARROW watershed model, in Valigura, R.A., Alexander, R.B., Castro, M.S., Meyers, T.P., Paerl, H.W., Stacey, P.E., Turner, R.E. eds, Nitrogen Loading in Coastal Water Bodies—An Atmospheric Perspective: Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, American Geophysical Union Monograph 57, p. 119-170.

CENR, 2000, Integrated assessment of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, D.C. , 58 p.

Clark, G.M., Mueller, D.K., Mast, M.A., 2000, Nutrient concentrations and yields in undeveloped basins of the United States: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 36, no. 4, p. 849-860.

Duff, J.H., and Triska, F.J., 2000, Nitrogen biogeochemistry and surface-subsurface exchange in streams, in Jones, J.B., and Mulholland, P.J., eds., Streams and Groundwater: New York, Academic Press, p. 197-220.

Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Flow of nitrogen into Mississippi Basin believed to cause Gulf hypoxia: Earth in Space, v. 13, no. 3, p. 6-10.

Goolsby, D.A., 2000, Mississippi basin nitrogen flux believed to cause Gulf hypoxia: EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 81, no. 29, p. 321, 326-327.

Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 2000, Nitrogen in the Mississippi Basin—Estimating sources and predicting flux to the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 135-00, 6 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 2000, Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River: Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 75-86.

Howarth, R., Anderson, D., Cloern, J., Hopkinson, C., LaPointe, B., Malone, T., Marcus, N., McGlathery, K., and Sharpley, A., 2000, Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas: Issues in Ecology, v. 7, p. 1-15.

Kalkhoff, S.J., Barnes, K.K., Becher, K.D., Savoca, M.E., Schnoebelen, D.J., Sadorf, E.M., Porter, S.D., and Sullivan, D.J., 2000, Water Quality in the Eastern Iowa Basins, Iowa and Minnesota, 1996–98: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1210, 37 p.

Lawrence, G.B., Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Stensland, G.J., 2000, Atmospheric nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin—emissions, deposition and transport: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 248, no. 2-3, p. 87-99.

Nolan, B.T., and Stoner, J.D., 2000, Nutrients in ground waters of the conterminous United States, 1992-1995: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 34, no. 7, p. 1156-1165.

Perry, C.A., Aldridge, B.N., and Ross, H.C., 2000, Summary of significant floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970-1989: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2502, 598 p.

Smith, R.A. and Alexander, R.B., 2000, Sources of nutrients in the Nation's watersheds, in Proceedings of the National Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, A conference for nutrient management consultants, extension educators, and producer advisors, March 28-30, 2000, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania.

Verstraeten, I.M., Böhlke, J.K., and Kraemer, T.F., 2000, Groundwater/surface-water interactions and sources of nitrogen and uranium in an irrigated area of Nebraska, USA, in Dassargues, A., ed., Proceedings, Tacers and Modelling in Hydrogeology: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 262, p. 525-531.

Wilkison, D.H., Blevins, D.W., and Silva, S.R., 2000, Use of isotopically labeled fertilizers to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, v. 8, no. 6, p. 1-16.

1999

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Are shifts in herbicide use reflected in concentration changes in midwestern rivers?: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 33, no. 17, p. 2917-2925.

Boustany, R. G. and Rizzo, W. M., 1999, Whole system material fluxes within meadows of Vallisneria americana from Lake Pontchartrain, LA: effects of light and nutrient manipulations, Rozas, L. P., Nyman, J. A., Proffitt, C. E., Rabalais, N. N., Reed, D. J., and Turner, R. E., 2-3-1998, 111-122.

Brezonik, P.L., Bierman, V.J., Alexander, R., Anderson, J, Barko, J., Dortch, M., Hatch, L., Keeney, D., Mulla, D., Smith, V., Walker, C., Whitledge, T., and W. Wiseman, W., 1999, Effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters within the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico, Report of Task Group 4 to the White House Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, Hypoxia Work Group, Federal Register, 64, 23834-23835.

Chang, C.C., Langston, J., Riggs, M., Campbell, D.H., Silva, S.R., and Kendall, C., 1999, A method for nitrate collection for d15N and d18O analysis from waters with low nitrate concentrations: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, v. 56, p. 1856-1860.

Cloern, J.E., 1999, The relative importance of light and nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth—A simple index of coastal ecosystem sensitivity to nutrient enrichment: Aquatic Ecology, v. 33, no. 1, p. 3-15.

Fuhrer, G.J., Gilliom, R.J., Hamilton, P.A., Morace, J.L., Nowell, L.H., Rinella, J.F., Stoner, J.D. and Wentz, D.A., 1999, The quality of our nation's water—Nutrients and pesticides: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225, 82 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Aulenbach, B.T., and Hooper, R.P., 1999, Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999—Volume 2 of 3—Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 203-213.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., Lawrence, G.B., Artz, R.S., Aulenbach, B.T., Hooper, R.P., Keeney, D.R., and Stensland, G.J., 1999, Flux and sources of nutrients in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin—Topic 3, Report for the integrated assessment on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 17, 129 p.

Kemp, G. P., Day, J. W., Jr., Reed, D. J., Cahoon, D. R., and Wang, M., 1999, Sedimentation, consolidation and surface elevation change in two salt marshes of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; geotechnical aspects of wetland loss, Rozas, L. P., Nyman, J. A., Proffitt, C. E., Rabalais, N. N., Reed, D. J., and Turner, R. E., 2-3-1998, 15-34.

Kendall, C., Battaglin, W.A., Cabana, G., Chang, C.C., Silva, S.R., Porter, S.D., Goolsby, D.A., Campbell, D.H., Hooper, R.P., and Schmitt, C.J., 1999, Isotopic tracing of nitrogen sources and cycling in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999—Volume 2 of 3—Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 339-343.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Goolsby, D.A., 1999, Nitrate in groundwater of the Midwestern United States—A regional investigation on relations to land use and soil properties: IAHS Publication No. 257, p. 111-116.

Lawrence, G.B., Goolsby, D.A., and Battaglin, W.A., 1999, Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999—Volume 2 of 3—Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, p. 331-337.

Litke, D.W., 1999, Review of phosphorus control measures in the United States and their effects on water quality: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4007, 38 p.

Lucas, L.V., Koseff, J.R., Cloern, J.E., Monismith, S.G., and Thompson, J.K., 1999, Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries—Part I, The local production-loss balance: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v. 187, p. 1-16.

Lucas, L.V., Koseff, J.R., Monismith, S.G., Cloern, J.E., and Thompson, J.K., 1999, Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries—Part II, The role of horizontal transport: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v. 187, p. 17-30.

Nolan, B.T., 1999, Nitrate behavior in ground waters of the southeastern United States: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 28, no. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1999, p. 1518-1527.

Puckett, L.J., Cowdery, T.K., Lorenz, D.L., and Stoner, J.D., 1999, Estimation of nitrate contamination of an agro-ecosystem outwash aquifer using a nitrogen mass-balance budget: Journal of Environmental Quality, volume 28, no. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1999, p. 2015-2025.

Rizzo, W. M. and Boustany, R. G., 1999, Sediment-water material fluxes in benthic microalgal-dominated sediments from beds of submersed vegetation, in Rozas, L.P., Nyman, J.A., Proffitt, C.E., Rabalais, N.N., Reed, D.J., and Turner, R.E., eds., Impacts of light reduction and nutrient enrichment, 2-3-1998, 101-110.

Sorenson, S.K., Porter, S.D., Akers, K.K.B, Harris, M.A., Kalkhoff, S.J., Lee, K.E., Roberts, L.R., and Terrio, P.J., 1999, Water quality and habitat conditions in Upper Midwest streams relative to riparian vegetation and soil characteristics, August 1997—Study design, methods and data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-202, 53 p.

Wilkison, D.H., and Blevins, D.W., 1999, Observations on preferential flow and horizontal transport of nitrogen fertilizer in the unsaturated zone: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 28, no. 5, p. 1568-1580.

1998

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1998, Regression models of herbicide concentrations in outflow from reservoirs in the midwestern USA, 1992-1993: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 34, no. 6, p. 1369-90, AWRA Paper Number 97055.

Goolsby, D.A., Hooper, R.P., and Battaglin, W.A., 1998, Sources and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in Proceedings "From the Corn Belt to the Gulf...Agriculture and Hypoxia in the Mississippi River Watershed," American Farm Bureau Federation Workshop, St Louis, Missouri, July 14-15, 1997: American Farm Bureau Federation, p. 59-64 (document has no page numbers).

Lucas, L.V., Cloern, J.E., Koseff, J.R., Monismith, S.G., and Thompson, J.K., 1998, Does the Sverdrup critical depth model explain bloom dynamics in estuaries?: Journal of Marine Research, v. 56, no. 2, p. 375-415.

McClain, M.E., Bilby, R.E., and Triska, F.J., 1998, Chapter 14 - Biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur—Natural distributions and response to disturbance, in Naiman, R.J., ed., The Ecology and Management of Rivers and Streams in the Pacific Northwest Ecoregion: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 347-372.

Mueller, D.K., 1998, Quality of nutrient data from streams and ground water sampled during 1993-95—National Water-Quality Assessment Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-276, 25 p.

Mueller, D.K., and Stoner, J.D., 1998, Identifying the potential for nitrate contamination of streams in agricultural areas of the United States in Proceedings of the National Water-Quality Monitoring Conference, July 7-9, 1998, Reno, Nev., p. III-163 to III-173.

Nolan, B.T., 1998, Modeling approaches for assessing risk of non-point contamination of ground water: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-531, 22 p.

Nolan, B.T., Ruddy, B.C., Hitt, K.J., and Helsel, D.R., 1998, A national look at nitrate contamination of groundwaters: Water Conditioning and Purification, v. 39, no. 12, p. 76-79.

Nolan, B.T., Ruddy, B.C., Hitt, K.J., and Helsel, D.R., 1998, Nitrate in ground waters of the United States, in Proceedings of the National Water-Quality Monitoring Conference, July 7-9, 1998, Reno, Nev.

Scribner, E.A., Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., and Battaglin, W.A., 1998, A reconnaissance for selected herbicides and nutrients in streams of nine Midwestern States, 1994-95: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-181, 44 p.

Soballe, D. M., 1998, Successful water quality monitoring—The right combination of intent, measurements, interpretation, and a cooperating ecosystem: Lake and Reservoir Management, v. 14, no. 1, p. 10–20.

1997

Alexander, Richard B., Slack, James R., Fitzgerald, A.S., and Schertz, T.L., 1997, Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks: Water Resources Research, v. 34, no. 9, p. 2401-2405.

Antweiler, R.C., and Taylor, H.E., 1997, Spatial distribution of nutrients in the Mississippi River system (1991-1992)—Proceedings, in Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Conference, Kenner, Louisiana: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, p. 133-143.

Battaglin, W.A., Kendall, C., Goolsby, D.A., and Boyer, L.L., 1997, Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios d15N and d18O can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-230, 18 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Hooper, R.P., 1997, Sources and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, in From the Corn Belt to the Gulf—Agriculture and Hypoxia in the Mississippi River Watershed, Proceedings, St. Louis, Mo., July 14-15, 1997: American Farm Bureau Federation, p. 6.

Hooper, R.P., Goolsby, D.A., Rickert, D.A., and McKenzie, S.W., 1997, NASQAN, A program to monitor the water quality of the nation's large rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-055-97, 6 p.

Kolpin, D.W., Hallberg, G., Sneck-Fahrer, D.A., and Libra, R., 1997, Agricultural chemicals in Iowa's ground water, 1982-95—What are the trends: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-116-97, 4 p.

Mueller, D.K., Ruddy, B.C., and Battaglin, W.A., 1997, Logistic model of nitrate in streams of the upper-midwestern United States: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 26, no. 5, p. 1223-1230.

Nolan, B.T., Ruddy, B.C., Hitt, K.J., and Helsel, D.R., 1997, Risk of nitrate in ground waters of the United States—A national perspective: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, n. 8, p. 2229-2236.

Rostad, C.E., Leenheer, J.A., and Daniel, S.R., 1997, Organic carbon and nitrogen content associated with colloids and suspended particulates from the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 31, no. 11, p. 3218-3225, doi: 10.1021/es970196b.

Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997, Regional interpretation of water quality monitoring data: Water Resources Research, v. 33, no. 12, p. 2781-2798, 97WR02171.

Triska, F.J., and Duff, J.H., 1997, Sediment associated nitrification and denitrification potentials at the interface between a bankside ground water seep and the channel of the Shingobee River, in Winter, T.C., ed., Interdisciplinary research initiative—Hydrological and biogeochemical research in the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4215, p. 155-160.

1996

Alexander, R.B., Ludtke, A.S., Fitzgeral, K.K., and Schertz, T.L., 1996, Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water-Quality Monitoring Networks (WQN) on CD-ROM: Open-File Report 96-337, 85 p.

Antweiler, R.C., Goolsby, D.A., and Taylor, H.E., 1996, Nutrients in the Mississippi River, 1987-92, in Meade, R.H., ed., Contaminants in the Mississippi River: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, p. 73-85.

Blevins, D.W., Wilkison, D.H., Kelly, B.P., and Silva, S.R., 1996, Movement of nitrate fertilizer to glacial till and runoff from a claypan soil: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 25, no. 3, p. 582-593.

Blevins, D.W., Wilkison, D.H., Silva, S.R., and Kelly, B.P., 1996, Use of 15N to trace movement of nitrogen fertilizer at a field plot, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 401-409.

Brinton, T.I., Antweiler, R.C., and Taylor, H.E., 1996, Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-426-A, 16 p.

Campbell, D.H., Cravotta, C.A., Ging, P., Lind, C.J., Lawrence, G.B., Murdoch, P.S., Silva, S., and Wilkison, D., 1996, Atmospheric deposition and nitrogen cycling in soils—Use of isotopes for determining sources (Working Groups 3 and 4 summary report), in Puckett, L.J., and Triska, F.J., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Nitrogen Cycling Workshop, Denver, Colorado, October 30 - November 2, 1995: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-477, p. 72-77.

Druliner, A.D., Goolsby, D.A., and Meyer, M., 1996, Temporal distributions of herbicide and nitrite-nitrate concentrations and loads in the West Fork of the Big Blue River, Nebraska, 1990 and 1991-92, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 479-485.

Druliner, A.D., and McGrath, T.S., 1996, Predicting nitrate-nitrogen and atrazine contamination in the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 515-524.

Graffy, E.A., Helsel, D.R., and Mueller, D.K., 1996, Nutrients in the Nation's waters—Identifying problems and progress—A national water-quality assessment of nutrients: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-218-96, 6 p.

Johnson, G.P., and Coupe, R.H., 1996, Transport and concentrations of selected herbicides and nitrate in the Sangamon River, Illinois, April 1991 - March 1992, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 471-478.

Kolpin, D.W., Zichelle, K.E., and Thurman, E.M., 1996, Water-quality data for pesticides, nutrients, and volatile organic compounds in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental United States, 1992-1994: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-435, 47 p.

Lamb, J.A., Tomer, M.D., Anderson, J.L., and Dowdy, R.H., 1996, Nitrogen uptake and soil water variability across a sand plain landscape, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 575-579.

Lubinski, K. 1996, Management in transition on the Upper Mississippi River, in Proceedings of the Rivertech96, First International Conference on new/emerging concepts for rivers: International Water Resources Association, Urbana, Illinois, v. 1, p. 143–145.

McMahon, P.B., and Böhlke, J.K., 1996, Denitrification and mixing in a stream-aquifer system—Effects on nitrate loading to surface water: Journal of Hydrology, v. 186, no. 1-4, p. 105-128, doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03037-5.

Mueller, D.K., Ruddy, B.C., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, Relation of nitrate concentrations in surface water to land use in the Upper-Midwestern United States, 1989-90, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 441-448.

Mueller, D.K., and Helsel, D.R., 1996, Nutrients in the Nation's waters—Too much of a good thing?: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1136, 24 p.

Nolan, B.T., and Ruddy, B.C., 1996, Nitrate in ground waters of the United States—Assessing the risk: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-092-96, 4 p.

Pringle, C.M., and Triska, F.J., 1996, Chapter 29 - Effects of nutrient enrichment on periphyton, in Hayer, F.R., and Lamberti, G.A., eds., Methods in Stream Ecology: San Diego, Academic Press, p. 607-624.

Puckett, L.J., and Triska, F.J., eds., 1996, U.S. Geological Survey nitrogen cycling workshop, Denver, Colo., October 30 - November 2, 1995: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-477, 88 p.

Puckett, L.J., and Triska, F.J., 1996, USGS nitrogen cycling workshop: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-477, 88 p.

Scribner, E.A., Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Meyer, M.T., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, Concentrations of selected herbicides, herbicide metabolites, and nutrients in outflow from selected midwestern reservoirs, April 1992 through September 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-393, 128 p.

Soenksen, P.J., Hatfield, J.L., and Schmitz, D.J., 1996, Chemical loads of nitrate, atrazine, and metolachlor in Walnut Creek watershed near Ames, Iowa, 1991-92, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 597-605.

Verstraeten, I.M., McGuire, V.L., and Battaglin, W.A., 1996, Use of 2D and 3D GIS in well selection and interpretation of nitrate data, central Nebraska, USA, in Kovar, K., and Nachtnebel, H., eds., Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management—Proceedings of HydroGIS'96 meeting, Vienna, Austria, April 1996: International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication No. 235, p. 585-591.

Wanty, R.B., Tuttle, M.L., Landon, M.K., Delin, G.N., and Böhlke, J.K., 1996, Geochemistry of nitrogen in a farmed watershed near Princeton, Minnesota, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 20-24, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4015, v. 1, p. 591-596.

Yen, S., Liu, S., and Kolpin, D.W., 1996, Analysis of nitrate in near-surface aquifers in the midcontinental United States—An application of the inverse hyperbolic sine Tobit model: Water Resources Research, v. 32, no. 10, p. 3003-3011, 96WR02102, doi:10.1029/96WR02102.

1995

Antweiler, R.C., Patton, C.J., and Taylor, H.E., 1995, Nutrients, in Moody, J.A., ed., Chemical data for water samples collected during four upriver cruises on the Mississippi River between New Orleans, Louisiana, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 1990-April 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-523, p. 89-92.

Battaglin, W.A., and Goolsby, D.A., 1995, Spatial data in geographic information sustem format on agricultural chemical use, land use, and cropping practices in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4176, 87 p.

Bratkovich, A., Dinnel, S.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 1995, Variability and prediction of freshwater and nitrate fluxes for the Louisiana-Texas shelf— Mississippi and Atchafalaya source functions: Estuaries, v. 17, no. 4, p. 766-778.

Brinton, T.I., Garbarino, J.R., Peart, D.B., Taylor, H.E., and Antweiler, R.C., 1995, Concentration and transport data for dissolved inorganic constituents in water collected during seven cruises on the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries, July 1987 - June 1990: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-524, 102 p.

Caffrey, J.M., and Miller, L.G., 1995, A comparison of two nitrification inhibitors used to measure nitrification rates in estuarine sediments: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, v. 17, p. 213-219, doi: 10.1016/0168-6496(95)00026-7.

Coupe, R.H., Goolsby, D.A., Iverson, J.L., Zaugg, S.D., and Markovchick, D.J., 1995, Pesticide, nutrient, streamflow and physical property data for the Mississippi River and major tributaries, April 1991-September 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-657, 116 p.

Garbarino, J.R., Antweiler, R.C., Brinton, T.I., Roth, D.A., and Taylor, H.E., 1995, Concentration and transport data for selected dissolved inorganic constituents and dissolved organic carbon in water collected from the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries, July 1991 - May 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-149, 149 p.

Lubinski, K. S., 1995, Preface, Bridging the gap between theory and practice on the Upper Mississippi River: Regulated Rivers Research & Management, v. 11, p. 137–138.

Meade, R.H., ed., 1995, Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987-92: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, 140 p.

McMahon, P.B., Tindall, J.A., Collins, J.A., Lull, K.J., and Nuttle, J.R., 1995, Hydrologic and geochemical effects on oxygen uptake in bottom sediments of an effluent-dominated river: Water Resources Research, v. 31, p. 2561-2569.

Mueller, D.K., Hamilton, P.A., Helsel, D.R., Hitt, K.J., and Ruddy, B.C., 1995, Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States—Analysis of data through 1992: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4031, 74 p.

Puckett, L.J, 1995, Identifying the major sources of nutrient water pollution: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 29, n. 9, p. 408-414A.

Tate, C.M., Broshears, R.E., and McKnight, D.M., 1995, Phosphate dynamics in an acidic mountain stream—Interactions involving algal uptake, sorption by iron oxide, and photoreduction: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 40, no. 5, p. 938-946.

Tindall, J.A., Petrusak, R.L., and McMahon, P.B., 1995, Nitrate transport and transformation processes in unsaturated porous media: Journal of Hydrology, v. 169, no. 1-4, p. 51-94.

Triska, F.J., Kennedy, V.C., Avanzino, R.J., and Stanley, K.C., 1995, Long-term effects of clearcutting and short-term impacts of storms on inorganic nitrogen uptake and regeneration in a small stream at summer base flow, in Nolan, K.M., Kelsey, H.M., and Marron, D.C., eds., Geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in the Redwood Creek Basin, northwestern California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1454, p. V1-V13.

Wlosinski, J. H., and Rogala, J. T., 1995, Pool 25—Effects of water level and levee management alternatives on present habitats, in Proceedings of the 51st annual meeting of the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois.

1994

Bratkovich, A., Dinnel, S.P., and Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Variability and prediction of freshwater and nitrate fluxes for the Louisiana-Texas shelf—Mississippi and Atchafalaya River source functions: Estuaries, v. 17, no. 4, p. 766-78.

Goolsby, D.A., 1994, Flux of herbicides and nitrate from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico during the 1993 flood, in Dowgiallo, M.J., ed., Coastal oceanographic effects of summer 1993 Mississippi River flooding—Special NOAA report: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, p. 32-35.

Goolsby, D.A., Battaglin, W.A., and Thurman, E.M., 1994, Occurrence and transport of herbicides and nitrate in the Mississippi River during the 1993 flood—Proceedings of American Water Resources Association meeting, in, Nashville, Tenn., April 17-20, 1994: p. 473-477.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1994, Herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the Mid-Continent United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2413, 34 p.

Puckett, L.J., 1994, Nonpoint and point sources of nitrogen in major watersheds of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4001, 6 p.

Scribner, E.A., Goolsby, D.A., Thurman, E.M., Meyer, M.T., and Pomes, M.L., 1994, Concentrations of selected herbicides, two triazine metabolites, and nutrients in storm runoff from nine stream basins in the midwestern United States, 1990-92: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-396, 144 p.

Taylor, H.E., Antweiler, R.C., Brinton, T.I., Roth, D.A., and Moody, J.A., 1994, Major ions, nutrients and trace elements in the Mississippi River near Thebes, Illinois, July through September, 1993: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1120-D, 21 p.

Triska, F.J., Jackman, A.P., Duff, J.H., and Avanzino, R.J., 1994, Ammonium sorption to channel and riparian sediments—A transient storage pool for dissolved inorganic nitrogen: Biogeochemistry, v. 26, p. 67-83.

Wanty, R.B., Tuttle, M.L., Böhlke, J.K., and Briggs, P.H., 1994, Chemical analyses of ground and surface water from Battle Brook drainage basin, near Princeton, Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-129, 26 p.

Wilber, W.G., and Davis, J.V., 1994, Assessing the quality of the Nation's water—Point versus nonpoint sources of phosphorus in rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1993, p. 48-49.

1993

Antweiler, R.C., Patton, C.J., and Taylor, H.E., 1993, Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in nautral water samples: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-638, 40 p.

Avanzino, R.J., and Kennedy, V.C., 1993, Long-term frozen storage of streamwater samples for dissolved orthophosphate, nitrate plus nitrate, and ammonia analysis: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 10, p. 3357-3362.

Böhlke, J.-K., Gwinn, C.J., and Coplen, T.B., 1993, New reference materials for nitrogen-isotope-ratio measurements: Geostandards Newsletter, v. 17, p. 159-164.

Burkart, M.R., and Kolpin, D.W., 1993, Regional assessment of factors related to herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinent, in Agricultural research to protect water quality—Proceedings of the Conference, Minneapolis, Minn., February 21-24, 1993: Soil and Water Conservation Society, p. 390-392.

Guntenspergen, G. R., Foote, A. L., and Pendelton, E. C., 1993, Experiment to determine the value of impoundments and hydrologic manipulation in restoration of Louisiana coastal wetlands: Restoration and Management Notes, v. 11, no. 1, 64-6

James, W. F., and Barko, J. W., 1993, Analysis of summer phosphorus fluxes within the pelagic zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin: Lake and Reservoir Management, v. 8, p. 61–71.

Kelly, B.P., and Blevins, D.W., 1993, Hydrologic budget and nitrogen distribution for an agricultural study plot in claypan soil and glacial till near Centralia, Mo.—May 1991 to May 1992, in Proceedings from 3rd Annual Missouri Water Quality Conference, Columbia, Missouri, Feb. 4, 1993: Columbia, Missouri, University of Missouri, p. 100-105.

Kelly, B.P., and Blevins, D.W., 1993, Hydrologic budget and nitrogen distribution for an agricultural test plot in claypan soil and glacial till near Centralia, Missouri—May 1991 to May 1992, in Agricultural Research to Protect Water Quality—Proceedings of the Conference, Minneapolis, Minn., February 21-24, 1993: Soil and Water Conservation Society, p. 545-547.

Kelly, B.P., and Blevins, D.W., 1993, Hydrology and nitrogen distribution in claypan soil and glacial till near Centralia, Missouri—May 1991 to May 1992, in Agricultural Research to Protect Water Quality, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1993: Soil and Water Conservation Society, p. 545-546.

Kolpin, D.W., Burkart, M.R., and Thurman, E.M., 1993, Hydrogeologic, water-quality and land-use data for the reconnaissance of herbicides and nitrate in near-surface aquifers of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-114, 61 p.

Kuwabara, J.S., and Baker, J.E., 1993, Trace contaminants and nutrients in estuaries—The importance of process interdependence: Estuaries, v. 16, no. 3A, p. 383-384.

Lubinski, K. S., and Gutreuter, S., 1993, Ecological information and habitat rehabilitation on the upper Mississippi River, Hesse, L. W., Stalnaker, C. B., Benson, N. G., and Zuboy, J.R., eds., Proceedings of the symposium on restoration planning for rivers of the Mississippi River ecosystem: Washington D.C., U.S. Department of the Interior, p. 87-100.

Lucey, K.J., and Goolsby, D.A., 1993, Effects of climatic variations over 11 years on nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the Raccoon River, Iowa: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 22, p. 38-46.

Mueller, D.K., Ruddy, B.C., and Battaglin, W.A., 1993, Relation of nitrate concentrations in surface water to land use in the upper-Midwestern United States, 1989-90, in Goolsby, D.A., Boyer, L.L., and Mallard, G.E., eds., Selected papers on agricultural chemicals in water resources of the Midcontinental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-418, p. 41-50.

Scribner, E.A., Thurman, E.M., Goolsby, D.A., Meyer, M.T., Mills, M.S., and Pomes, M.L., 1993, Reconnaissance data for selected herbicides, two atrazine metabolites, and nitrate in surface water of the Midwestern United States, 1989-90: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-457, 77 p.

Smith, R.A., Alexander, R.B., and Lanfear, K.J., 1993, Stream water quality in the conterminous United States—Status and trends of selected indicators during the 1980's, in Paulson, R.W., Chase, E.B., Williams, J.S., and Moody, D.W., eds., National Water Summary 1990-91—Hydrologic events and stream water quality: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2400, p. 111-140.

Sparks, R. E. ,1993, Large river-floodplain ecosystems—Value and need for ecological management: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, v. 74, no. 2, p. 442.

Springer, A., and Bair, S., 1993, Transport of atrazine, alachlor, and nitrate relative to the tracer bromide at the Ohio Management Systems Evaluation Area, in Agricultural Research to Protect Water Quality—Proceedings of the Conference, Minneapolis, Minn., February 21-24, 1993: Soil and Water Conservation Society, p. 102-104.

Triska, F.J., Duff, J.H., and Avanzino, R.J., 1993, Patterns of hydrological exchange and nutrient transformation in the hyporheic zone of a gravel bottom stream—Examining terrestrial aquatic linkages: Freshwater Biology, v. 29, p. 259-274.

Triska, F.J., Duff, J.H., and Avanzino, R.J., 1993, The role of water exchange between a stream channel and its hyporheic zone in nitrogen cycling at the terrestrial-aquatic interface: Hydrobiologia, v. 251, p. 167-184.

Triska, F.J., Pringle, C.M., Zellweger, G.W., Duff, J.H., and Avanzino, R.J., 1993, Dissolved inorganic nitrogen composition, transformation, retention, and transport in naturally phosphate-rich and phosphate-poor tropical streams: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 50, p. 665-675.

1992

Kim, B.E., Jackman, A.P., and Triska, F.J., 1992, Modeling biotic uptake by periphyton and transient hyporrheic storage on nitrate in a natural stream: Water Resources Research, v. 28, no. 10, p. 2743-2752.

Kuwabara, J.S., 1992, Associations between benthic flora and diel changes in dissolved arsenic, phosphorus, and related physico-chemical parameters: Journal of the North American Benthological Society, v. 11, p. 218-228.

Blevins, D.W., 1991, Planned studies of movement of nitrogen species and herbicides on claypan soils at the Management Systems Evaluation Area, Missouri, in Mallard, G.E., and Aronson, D.A., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Monterey, California, March 11-15, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4034, p. 240-242.

Blevins, D.W., 1991, Planned studies of nitrogen species and herbicides on claypan soils at the Management Systems Evaluation Area in Missouri, in U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Monterey, Calif., Mar. 11, 1991, Proceedings: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 91-4034, p. 240-242.

Brooks, M.H., 1991, Development and evaluation of a technique for measuring denitrification enzyme activity in nitrate-contaminated ground water: Golden, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, unpublished M.S. thesis, 94 p.

Goolsby, D.A., Coupe, R.H., and Markovchick, D.J., 1991, Distribution of selected herbicides and nitrate in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, April through June 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4163, 35 p.

Kolpin, D.W., and Burkart, M.R., 1991, Work plan for regional reconnaissance for selected herbicides and nitrate in ground water of the Midcontinent United States, 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-59, 18 p.

1990

Alexander, R.B., and Smith, R.A., 1990, County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in the United States, 1945 to 1985: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-130, 12 p.

1989

Bencala, K.E., Triska, F.J., Kennedy, V.C., Zellweger, G.W., Duff, J.H., and Avanzino, R.J., 1989, Exchange between stream and substream flows—Implications for pollutant transport and nutrient cycling through a forested watershed, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 610.

Detroy, M.G., 1989, Seasonal variation and vertical distribution and movement of herbicides and nitrate in unsaturated and saturated alluvium underlying a cropped field, Iowa County, Iowa, in Mallard, G.E., and Ragone, S.E., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program—Proceedings of the technical meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, September 26-30, 1988: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4220, p. 634.

1987

Cole, B.E., and Cloern, J.E., 1987, An empirical model for estimating phytoplankton productivity in estuaries: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v. 36, p. 299-305.

1986

Feder, G.L., 1986, Hydrogeologic controls on nitrate in ground and surface waters: International Association of Hydrological Sciences, no. 156, p. 211-215.

Konikow, L.F., and Person, M.A., 1986, Influence of irrigation on salinity and nitrate in a stream-aquifer system: International Association of Hydrological Sciences publ. 156, p. 217-229.

Kuwabara, J.S., Davis, J.A., and Chang, C.C.Y., 1986, Algal growth response to particle-bound orthophosphate and zinc: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, v. 31, p. 503-511.

Lai, T.M., and Eberl, D.D., 1986, Controlled and renewable release of phosphorus in soils form mixtures of phosphate rock and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite: Zeolites, v. 6, p. 129-132.

Miller, R.L., Oremland, R.S., and Paulsen, S.P., 1986, Measurement of N2O reductase activity in aquatic sediments: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 51, p. 18-24.

1985 and Older

Kuwabara, J.S., 1985, Phosphorus-zinc interactive effects on growth by Selenastrum capricornutum (Chlorophyseae): Environmental Science and Technology, v. 19, p. 417-421.

Duff, J., Triska, F.J., and Oremland, R.S., 1984, Denitrification associated with stream communities—Chamber estimates from undisturbed communities: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 13, p. 514-518.

LaBaugh, J.W., and Winter, T.C., 1984, The impact of uncertainties in hydrologic measurement on phosphorus budgets and empirical models for two Colorado reservoirs: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 29, p. 322-339.

Clark, F.W., 1924, The composition of the river and lake waters of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 135, 199. p.

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