Environmental Health - Toxic Substances
Biotransformation – "Chemical conversion of a substance that is mediated by living organisms or enzyme preparations derived there from." - Stephenson and others, 2006
Biotransformation - "Biotransformation is the process whereby a substance is changed from one chemical to another (transformed) by a chemical reaction within the body." – National Library of Medicine and Monosson, 2007
Biotransformation or microbial transformation – "The use of living organisms to modify substances that are not normally used for growth." – Prescott and others, 2002
Biotransformation – "The series of chemical reactions that occur in a compound, especially a drug, as a result of enzymatic or metabolic activities by a living organism." - McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003
Biotransformation - "Chemical alteration of a substance within the body, as by the action of enzymes." - Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, 2000
USGS Information on Biodegradation
Other Information on Biodegradation
Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, 2000, The American heritage dictionary of the English language (4 ed.): Houghton Mifflin Company, 2076 p.
McGraw-Hill Companies, 2003, Biotransformation, in AccessScience--McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online: The McGraw-Hill Companies, access date July 18, 2007.
National Library of Medicine (content source), Emily Monosson (editor), 2007, Biotransformation, in Cleveland, C.J., ed., Encyclopedia of Earth: Washington, D.C., Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, access date July 18, 2007.
Prescott, L.M., Klein, D.A., and Harley, J.P., 2002, Microbiology--Online learning center (5th ed.): McGraw-Hill Higher Education, p.
Stephenson, G.R., Ferris, I.G., Holland, P.T., and Nordberg, M., 2006, Glossary of terms relating to pesticides (IUPAC Recommendations 2006): Pure and Applied Chemistry, v. 78, no. 11, p. 2,075-2,154, doi:10.1351/pac200678112075.
Disclaimer: The definitions on this page are provided for information purposes only, and do not indicate endorment by the U.S. Geological Survey.